Until 1498, when Chistophes was discovered by Columbus (Christopher Colomp), the population of the Carib was formed. For the Spaniards, the conquest of Venezuela was difficult and slow due to the strong resistance of the Indians. Many towns were established in the country. Caracas was founded in 1567 and became the capital city in 1577. Venezuela was given to the administration of other colonies because it was considered a relatively insignificant part of the Spanish Empire. He was tied to Santo Domingo, the current Dominican Republic, and then to the Governor’s office in Granada. In 1776, the declaration of independence of the US and the French Revolution of 1789 were a model for independence. Napoleon’s war against Spain brought the end of the colonial era in April 1810. The creeks (the white people born in the country) set up a junta by dismissing the Spanish ruler. On 5 July 1811, an independent confederation was declared. This proclamation led to a 10-year war between the royal forces and the Creols. On June 24, 1821, the final victory was attained against Spain in the battle of Carababo. As a result of the dispute, Venezuela was an independent republic in 1830, leaving the confederation of many South American countries. From 1830 to the end of the 19th century, great crises followed one another. In most of the twentieth century, the country was ruled by military dictators. They developed the oil industry, made many social reforms. Since 1959, the country has begun to be ruled by governments that have come to power with democratic elections. The dispute with Guyana in the Essequibo border region began again in 1982. Pérez, who was elected for a second term in 1989, led to street demonstrations. When the people began the looting business, many people died on the intervention of the troops. In the elections held in December 1993, Rafael Caldera was elected to the presidency by taking the majority of votes. Rafael Celdera became president for the second time after 25 years. He took office on 6 December 1993.

Physical Structure

Venezuela is divided into four different natural regions: the Maracaibo lowlands, the northern highlands, the Orinoco lowlands and the Guyana Plateau. The length of the coasts is 2815 km and includes 72 islands of big and small in the Caribbean Sea. The largest of these islands is Margorita.

The Maracabio lowlands contain 52,000 km2 plain plains around Lake Maracabio and the Gulf of Venezuela. This area also includes the Paraguana Peninsula. It is separated from the rest of the country by Cardillera de Mérida in the south-east and Segovia in the northeast.

The mountainous region in the north begins with the Sierra de Périja, a branch of the Colombian Andes. The Cordillera de Mérida, another branch of the Andes, extends towards the shore in the northeast. The width of these mountains ranges from 13 to 64 km and the highest point is Pico Bolivar (5007 m). All year long, there is only snow on these mountains.

To the north are the Orinoco Plains to the south of the mountains. These plains extend from the Colombian border to the Atlantic Ocean on the Orinoco Delta. The plains narrow to the east between the rivers and their width decreases from 400 km to 80 km. Then it expands again in the Orinoco Delta.

The Guyana Plateau is located south of the Orinoco River and contains more than half of the territory of Venezuela. The wide plateaus are cut abruptly at the tip of steep rocks of 762 m. The heights reach up to 2180 m in the flat hills, which rise from their soles vertically. Angel waterfalls (979 m), the highest waterfall in the world, are poured from Auyáan-Tepui.

The country was built with a large river network. The Orinoco River waters the southern slopes of the mountains, the plains and Guyana Plateau, along with 436 branches. Orinoco, before the source of the Brazilian border to the north, then towards the east leads to a large delta. It is poured into the Atlantic Ocean. The length of this route is 2736 km. Maracaibo is the largest lake in Latin America and it is 121 km wide and 230 km long. Its surface area is 13.000 km2.


A tropical climate prevails in Venezuela. In the northeast, most of the year, relatively cold and dry alizeler work. The temperature varies depending on the height. The low coastal and river valleys in the inner region are hot and humid. High plots are usually mild in the daytime, cold at night.

The temperature is about 24 ° C up to a height of 800 m on average. It ranges from 10 to 27 ° C at altitudes of 800 to 2000 m. Above 2000 m, it is 18 ° C. The annual rainfall in the Paraguana Peninsula is 508 mm. The annual rainfall in South Maracaibo Plains and the Orinoco Delta is about 2032 mm. The central valley between the highlands of Guyana Plateau and the mountains in the north receives moderate rainfall. There is a precipitation of 787 mm per year in Caracas.

Natural Resources

About 40% of Venezuela is covered with forest. On the lower slopes of Maracaibo, on the lower slopes of Cardillera de Mérida and on the southwest slopes of the highlands of Guyana, there are jungles (frequent forest). More than 1800 m in the forests gradually sparse place on the grass. In the high foothills of the Andes, there are paramó vegetation consisting of alpine-type small shrubs and lichens. Orinoco has evergreen trees with leaves along the banks of the rivers in the lowlands. The Orinoco delta is often covered with mangrove bushes. The major wild animals found in the country are wild bovine, jaguar, puma, bear, deer, tapir and monkey. In Venezuela, oil, iron and gold are extracted. It ranks fifth in the world in oil production.

Population and Social Life

Three-quarters of the people of Venezuela, with a population of 20,188,000, live in cities. The major cities are the capital city of Caracas (2,265,874), Maracaibo, Barquisimeto and Valencia.

Of the population, 69% are hybrids, 20% are whites (Spanish, Portuguese and Italian), 9% are black and 2% are natives. Although hybrids constitute a majority, whites dominate social and cultural life. Whites earn most of their income by trading. Most hybrids and blacks work in agriculture or are workers. Hybrids are scattered throughout the country; whites were collected in cities. Most blacks live on the north coast. The tribes are usually found in the south or on the border with Colombia.

96% of Venezuelans are Catholics. According to the 1961 Constitution, Catholicism is the official religion of the country. Approximately 2% of the population is Protestant. There are small Muslim and Jewish communities in big cities. The inhabitants of the jungles and South Venezuela are pagans.

Education is free and compulsory until 14 years of age. 86% of the population is literate. The main collections are in Caracas, Maracaibo and Mérida. Almost everyone speaks Spanish, the official language. English is used as a second language among businessmen. Portuguese and Italian are the mother tongue for a significant part of the immigrants. The locals speak their own tribal language.

Political Life

Venezuela is a federal region, a federal republic consisting of two federal countries and 20 islands and some islands in the Caribbean. The president appoints the state administrators. The National Congress puts all the laws. The president is elected for five years by the direct public vote and cannot be chaired in successive periods. The Congress consists of a senate and a National Assembly. Each state chooses two senators, deputies are proportional to the population. National congressional elections are held every five years. Voting is compulsory for 18 years and older except for prisoners and soldiers. Venezuela is a member of the United Nations and the United States.


The Venezuelan economy is largely dependent on petroleum products. Oil constitutes 95% of exports and 30% of non-real GDP. Oil industry, iron mining, steel production and other basic industries are under the control of the government. Venezuela exports very few agricultural products. Imports food and timber. Since the production of consumables is very expensive, it has a limited domestic market. manufacturing, mainly food, tobacco, textile, paper and plastic industries. Half of the construction sector is in the hands of the private sector. The main plants grown are coffee, rice, fruits and sugar. The government is making efforts to increase agricultural products. From outside the machine takes the means of transport, chemicals and food products.

The transportation network in the heavily populated Maracaibo and the mountainous regions in the north is quite developed. The express highways connect to the ports of Caracas, Valencia, La Guaria and Puerto Cabello. The length of the roads is 100.571 km and approximately 33.188 km of it is covered with asphalt. Important railways are between Puerto Cabello and Barquisimeto, and between the Ciuadad Guyana and the iron mines in Cerro Bolivar. Oil pipelines extend from main wells to ports and important cities.

Venezuela trade with the United States, United Germany and Japan most. In addition, it tries to increase its commercial relations with neighboring Latin American countries. He is a member of the Latin American Free Trade Association and one of the founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).