Ukraine

Historical

Various states were established throughout the history of the region. Founded in the ninth century, the first Russian state, the Principality of Kiev, was destroyed by the Mongol attacks in the 13th century. In Western Ukraine, the Principality of Galicia and Volynia continued its dominance from the 11th to the 14th century.

Most of the territory of the country was under the domination of Lithuania in the 14th century. After the assassination of the Lublin unit, which made Poland and Lithuania a single federated state, was procured in 1569, the territory of Ukraine was de facto dominated by Poland. The leader of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, Bogdan Khmelnynik, rebelled against the Polish government and in 1651 asked the Russian tsar for help. This caused a war between the Russian Tsarist and Poland. After the war, the lands east of the Dnieper River and Kiev were dominated by Russians. When the Crimea entered the Russian domination in 1783, new settlements began to be established on the Black Sea coast.

In the eighteenth century, when the Polish lands were shared, the Ukrainian lands to the west of the Dnieper were dominated by Russian rule, while Galicia was dominated by Austria. In the nineteenth century, when nationalist movements became widespread in Ukraine, the Russian tsar resorted to severe measures to suppress these movements. He limited the use of Ukrainian. The Ukrainians, who were under the control of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, were more comfortable. At the beginning of the First World War, the Ukrainians in Galicia developed their own cultural, political and religious institutions.

After the 1917 revolution in Russia, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was established in Kharkov. Upon the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ukrainians established the National Republic of Western Ukraine in 1918 by taking over the administrative center of Galicia, Lemberg. This state was united with the Ukrainian National Republic in 1919, but in June 1919 the Ukrainian soldier was removed from Galicia. The former Ukrainian cities of Bukovina Romania and the territory of Hungary were dominated by the newly formed Czechoslovakia. While the various states worked to seize the domination of Ukraine between 1917-21, they did not succeed. In 1924, Ukraine became one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union.

Until the Second World War, Ukraine quickly industrialized and implemented a collective collective policy in agriculture. The villagers reacted to this big act. During the Stalin period the pressures in the region were increased and the use of the Ukrainian banned. Only Ukrainians living in Czechoslovakia had broad political and cultural rights.

With the signing of the German-Soviet non-aggression pact in 1939, the lands of Eastern Galicia and Western Volnia, which were dominated by Poland, were left to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In June 1941, the Germans attacked Russia and soon occupied Ukraine. The Germans, who were initially supported by the Ukrainians, later encountered guerrilla resistance. All the territories of Ukraine came under the domination of Russia after the Germans were defeated at the end of the war.

The reforms that began in Russia in 1989 have caused radical changes in Ukraine. The first multiparty elections were held. The country entered a new political and economic period. Ukraine declared its independence in 1991 and was one of the founders of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the same year.

Physical Structure

The territory of the country occupies most of the Eastern European Plain. To the northeast is an extension of the Central Russian Plateau. The Black Sea coast extending along the shores of the Black Sea forms the Crimean Plain on the Crimean peninsula. The length of the Carpathian Mountains in the west exceeds 240 km. The Crimean Mountains between the Black Sea and the Sea of ??Azov occur in three parallel places parallel to each other. These are valleys.

The main rivers are the Dniester and the Dnieper rivers and flow into the Azov-Black Sea Basin. A part of the Pripet Marsh and an inland sea, the Sea of ??Azov remains within the borders of the country.

Natural Resources

Mines: Ukraine; manganese ore is one of the richest regions in the world. There is also a significant amount of iron ore.

Population and Social Life

The population of Ukraine is 51.944.000 and the population density is 86ın. 72.7% of the population is Ukrainian, 22% is Russian and 5.3% is composed of other nationalities. 67% of the people live in cities and 33% live in villages. The main cities are Sevastopol, Odessa, Kharkiv, Denetsk, Krivay Rog and Zaporojye.

In Ukraine, education between 7-17 years of age is compulsory and free of charge. Education is carried out in Ukrainian. There are also schools where Russian, Moldavian, Polish, Bulgarian, Hungarian, French, German, Spanish and English are used. There are more than 140 higher education institutions in the country and many scientific studies related to the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Ukraine. There is no literacy in Ukraine.

Economy

The economy is based on agriculture and industry. The machine is widely used in agriculture. There are about eight thousand collective farms (Kolkhoz) around the country and around 1700 state farms (Sovhoz). These farms feed on cattle for meat and milk. In addition, cereals, vegetables, potatoes and sugar beet are grown.

The steel industry in Ukraine has improved. There are also factories in the country that produce metallurgy vehicles, diesel locomotives, televisions and tractors. Sun .i fertilizer, sulfuric acid and sugar factories occupy an important place in the economy. Almost all of the energy used in industrial plants is derived from fossil fuels.

Political Life

The highest legislative body in Ukraine is the High Council. The members of the Assembly shall be determined by elections held every five years. The High Assembly appoints the President and members of the Council of Ministers.