Today’s Ugandans are descendants of the two groups of migrants: As the first group, those coming to the south around the 15th century formed the current Bantu peoples of the country; then the second group from the Nile region and Sudan formed the tribes in the north and east. In Uganda, such as Bunyoro, Ankole, Buganda and Toro were established. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the most powerful state was the Bunyoro Kingdom. In the eighteenth century, Buganda took the upper hand in the struggle against Bunyoro to dominate the region. In the 1840s, Arab merchants came to the country, causing some Ugandans to become Muslims. In the 1884-85 Berlin Conference, Europe’s colonialist states agreed on a plan to share Africa. In the late 1880s, he and East Germany exchanged treaties between Britain and Germany. Kenya and Uganda remained to England, Tanganyika. Since 1894, Uganda has come under the auspices of Britain.

On October 9, 1962, Uganda became independent. The thirty-sixth President of the Republic of Uganda passed the Second Mutesa. Afterwards, Dr. In the time of Milton Obote, a few Jewish minorities, 90,000 British and British brought from India, 50,000 Hindu captured all the military, cultural and economic opportunities of Uganda. In 1971, the Army of Uganda They overthrew Milton Obote and brought Idi Amin, the beloved believer, into the head of state. The Jews of Amen expelled the British and Hindus from the country (see Idi Amin). In time, those who passed into Islam quickly multiplied. This situation made some forces extremely anxious. 26 assassinations to kill Idi Amin. Without these results, the Christian Tanzanian occupied Uganda. Returning from exile, Christian plays with political games in December 1980 Milton Obote slaughtered about 100,000 Muslims, children, old people, women. Basilio Olara Okello, who took control of the coup in 1985, was soon overthrown by the National Resistance Movement under the administration of Yoweri Museveni. Museveni, who took the presidency, strengthened his power by neutralizing the dissident Guerrilla groups within three years after the coup. After 1980, the first general elections were held in 1989, and the National Resistance Council won the elections. The country is in social and economic turmoil (1994-February).

Physical Structure

A large part of Uganda is in the highlands. The height of the land from the sea level to the north and north-west is between 600 and 900 meters. The Lake Victoria area ranges from 1000 to 1500 meters. Many mountains are rising on the plateau and they dominate the eastern and western borders of the country. Ruwenzori Mountains with a height of more than 4800 meters are divided by Zaire boundary. The 4321-meter-high Volcanic Mountain Mountain lies along the Kenya border. The 4504-meter-high volcanic Virunga Mountain Range is shared with Zaire and Rwanda.

Approximately 16% of the surface area of ??Uganda (42,439 km2) is covered with water. The main lakes of the country are the lakes of Victoria, Albert, Edward, Kyoga and George. Lake Victoria is the main source of the Nile River.


Although Uganda is on the equator, the climate is mild due to the high altitude of the country. There is no extreme temperature anywhere in the country. In the south, the average annual temperature ranges between 13 ° C and 23 ° C and in the north between 18 ° C and 30 ° C. Most of Uganda receives at least 1000 mm of precipitation per year. In Uganda, erosion is more important than drought.

Natural Resources

There are many different types of plants in Uganda. The most common plant species is the sparse tree savanna covering the entire north of the country. Other different plant species are trees left from the old forests in the east of Lake Victoria and Lake Albert, arid steppes in the Karamoja region in the east, open savanna in the south and southwest, forests in the highlands and highlands in the highlands. In Uganda, wild animals can be found in many different genera. Chimpanzees, gorillas, elephants, gazelles, lions, hippopotamus, cattle and zebra are the main wild animals of the country. The important underground riches of the country are copper and cobalt.

Population and Social Life

The population of Uganda is 17,200,000, and only a very small percentage (8,1%) of them live in cities. Most of the population is gathered in the east near the Lake of Algon and the Rwanda border, near Lake Victor. The number of people per kilometer is 59. The only major city in the country is the capital, Kampala, with a population of 773,500.

Of the people of Uganda, 98% are of African descent. There are a small number of South Asian, Arab and European. Africans are divided into four main ethnic groups according to the languages ??they use: the Bantu languages, the languages ??of the Nile, the Nil-Hami languages ??and the Sudanese languages. Bantu constitutes 65% of the population and occupies the entire southwestern part of Uganda. The major Bantu groups are Ganda, Nicole, Toro, Nyoro, Soga, Gisu and Kiga. The Nile region is located in the northern inner part of Uganda. Lango, Acholi and Alur groups are the major ones. The Nile-Hami peoples are present in northeastern Uganda, of which the main groups Iteso and Karamojong form. Sudanese groups live in the northwestern corner of Uganda. The largest of these groups is Lugbara.

In Uganda, many different tribal languages ??are spoken. Although not perfect, the tribes in the same language family can communicate with each other. The agreement between the four main groups is usually provided through the official language, English.

62% of Uganda’s people are Christian and the remaining 6% are Muslims. Approximately half of primary school-age children attend school, and 25% of the public are literate. There is a university, higher teacher schools, a technical high school and a high school of commerce in the country.

Political Life

Uganda is a Republic-managed country, divided into 10 states and 34 accidents. The 1967 Constitution was suspended due to military coups. The country is a member of the United Nations, the African Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.


The economy of Uganda is based on agriculture. The main crops grown are bananas, cassava, broom, corn, peanuts, sesame and beans. The main trade plants are coffee and cotton, accounting for 80% of the country’s exports. Tea and tobacco are also grown for export purposes.

Livestock breeding is developing in Uganda, and cattle, goats and sheep are grown in the northeast and southwest of the country. Fishing in the large lakes and reservoirs of the country is advanced.

Food, cement, building materials and textiles are the developed industries of the country. Tourism is gradually developing.

The length of the Uganda highway is approximately 28,332 km, of which 2240 km is asphalt. The railway running between Kampala and Mombasa, Kenya, was extended to Kasese in the west and from Tororo, on the border with Kenya, to Pakwach near Albert Nile. There are international airports in Entebbe near Kompala.