Switzerland

Historical

Today Celtic tribes living in Helvetia, Switzerland The city was considered a part of the Roman Empire for five centuries after being defeated by the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar in 58 BC. A.D. The Burgonds, which accepted Christianity in the 5th century, settled on both sides of the Jura’s Lake Geneva. The Germans settled in the Rhine and the Lower Aarhus basin. After the region, Rome joined the Germanic Empire. Feudal states began to be established from the eleventh century onwards. In the thirteenth century, the Habsburgs ruled central and western Switzerland. In 1291, the three cantons of Schwyzuri Nidwalden united to form a defense alliance against the Habsburgs. Thus the Swiss Confederation (named after Schwzy, the largest of the cantons) was born. In later centuries, the Swiss attacked several times with weapons to defend independence against the Habsburgs. In the fourteenth century, Luzirn, Zürich, Glaruszug and Bern merged with the first three cantons. In 1481 Appenzell joined Friborg, Solothurn in 1501, Basel in 1501, and in 1513. Switzerland, which developed its military power, adopted the policy of neutrality. Protestants were defeated in the canton conflict during the reform. In 1648, the independence of Switzerland was formally adopted by the Treaty of Westphalia. During the Napoleonic wars, the French occupied the country (1798). Napoleon united the cantons into a federation and founded the Republic of Helvet. After the defeat of Napoleon, the cantons were not broken. At the Vienna Congress of 1815, Switzerland’s neutrality was accepted. In 1847, a civil war broke out in the country. Some cantons wanted to establish a confederation, and some did not. The Swiss Confederation was established in 1848, when those who fought for the confederation won the war. Switzerland remained neutral in the First and Second World Wars. It is not connected to any block. The reason for this is that all the states of the world, statesmen have had confidant accounts in Swiss banks. In 1978, a decision was made to establish a new canton with a referendum and the Jura canton was established on 1 January 1979.

Physical Structure Switzerland is the most mountainous country in Europe. 3/4 of the land is covered with mountains. The Jura Mountains, which extend along the northwestern French border, are separated from the Alps, which cover the southern part of the country, by the Mitteland plateau. The Swiss Alps include the central part extending from Mont-Blanc to the Orts. The southern part of the country, which constitutes a large part of the country, is composed of the Alps of the Alps, the Pennine Alps, the Lepontine Alps and the eastern Rehetia Alps. The highest peaks are the Mente Rosa and Matterhorn (4478 m) hills located in the Pennine Alps. The highest peaks in the Bern Alps are the Jungster (4166 m) with the Finsteraarrhorn (4274 m).

The Swiss high plateau is the plateau between the Alps and the Jura Mountains. This highland is 1000 m high. It is also referred to as the Swiss Hills. This highland is covered with meadows and conifer forests.

Two large rivers of Europe emerge from the Swiss Alps. The Rhine River originates from two springs flowing into Lake Knostanz. Rhone .ni source is the southwestern glaciers. The Ticino River flows south. There are many lakes in Switzerland. The largest of these is Lake Constance, which borders Germany and Austria. The other important lakes are Zürich, Lulerne, Neuchatel and Leman.

Climate

The climate of Switzerland is very different. Although the weather is dry and open in the Rhetia Alps, the Ticino Canton has a humid temperature, while the Magiore and the Lugarna Lakes dominate the Mediterranean climate. The high hills of the mountains remain covered with snow throughout the year. The climate is usually mutedil. In all cantons except Ticinoso canton, the average winter temperature is below 0 ° C. In summer, the average temperature reaches 27 ° C.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Forests constitute 23% of the country’s territory. 70% of the forests are covered with coniferous trees and the rest is covered with broadleaf trees. Forests include oak, beech, walnut, pine and chestnut trees. Forests provide half of Switzerland’s timber needs. On the high Alpine slopes are mountain goats, rabbits, marmot and prey birds.

Mines: Switzerland is poor in terms of underground resources. There are few coal deposits in the country. Salt deposits are important.

Population and Social Life

Its population is 6,911,000 and a large part of the population is concentrated in cities and highlands. The major cities are Bern, Zürich, Basel and Geneva. There are still significant differences in terms of tradition, language and language in cantons and villages. In Switzerland, four languages ??are used as the official language. 65% of the public speaks German, 18% speaks French, 12% speaks Italian and 1% speaks Romaş.

Religious: People are Christian, 49.4% Catholic, 47.8% is Protestant.

Education: The level of education in Switzerland is very high. Literacy rate is 100%. Teaching between 6 and 14 years is compulsory. 25 different education systems in the country control cantons. There are 8 universities and 2 technical colleges in Switzerland. Seven of the universities are world famous and students from various countries are educated in these schools.

Political Life

The Constitution, still in force in Switzerland, entered into force in 1848. According to the constitution, Switzerland is composed of 20 sovereigns and 6 half-cantons. The federal council consists of a state council of 44 members and a 200-member national council elected directly by the people. The cantons, which are governed by the state council, send two members, each of which is half cantons. The Federal Council consists of seven members elected by the Federal Assembly for four years. The president and vice-president of the confederation, which are members of the Federal Council, are elected by the Bundestag every year.

Economy

The basis of the Swiss economy is the agriculture-based food industry, the chemical and the pharmaceutical industry. Animal husbandry is also very important.

Agriculture: Agricultural land in Switzerland is often too high to be studied. 6% of the soil can be planted. 6% of the people engaged in agriculture. The main products grown mainly are potatoes, rye and corn. Viticulture developed. On the shores of the lake and mountain foothills are made. Most grown fruits are apples, grapes, pears, plums and cherries.

Livestock: In Switzerland, livestock holds a big place in the economy. Since half of the land consists of grasslands and grasslands that grow constantly, it is a valuable natural resource for livestock. Goats and sheep are grown in high regions. Studies in the field of animal husbandry are carried out to grow cattle and cows, and dairy animals. The amount of milk obtained is approximately 3.650.000 tons and the cheese production is 129.000 tons. The cheese sector is world famous. It has a worldwide reputation in chocolate, which is counted in dairy products.

Industry: In Switzerland, 40% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. The steel industry in the country has developed. For this purpose it receives iron ore from outside. Heavy industry products such as machinery, locomotives and turbines are manufactured. The production of electrical machines, scientific and optical instruments has an important place in the country industry. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is well developed. Watchmaking is a famous industrial branch of the country. Swiss watches are world famous. 90% of industrial production is exported.

Trade: Most of the industrial products are exported. Exported goods include electric motors, machinery, locomotives, turbines, woven products, dairy products, watches, chocolate, pharmaceuticals and chemical products. Switzerland is the major banking center that plays an important role in the world’s financial life. 10% of Swiss people deal with banking. Swiss banking and insurance provide huge income from the source. Another important source of income is tourism. The Swiss summer winter undergoes the influx of tourists all year round. Imported oil comes from the beginning of the substances. This is followed by other industrial raw materials and nutrients.

Transportation: There are 64,855 km of highway in Switzerland. 1.057 km of this is connected to the international road network. The total length of the railways is 4991 km. There are also special lines of 830 km. Air transport is provided by Swissair, established in 1931. The sea trade fleet consists of 30 ships and has a load capacity of 294,304 gross tons. The most important port is Basel.