Because of the lack of written and recorded documents about the history of Peru before the Spanish period, the information is very weak. According to the results of the historical studies, the first inhabitants of the Peruvian territory were nomadic hunters and fishermen who crossed the Bosphorus and crossed the Pacific Ocean. BC in Peru. 1200 years, M.S. Until 1532, various civilizations came and went. The last of these periods, known as Chavin (Şöven), Classical, Chimu and İnka, is the most influential in the continent and in the country.

The Spanish first came to the country in 1531 through Francisco Pizarro. After that, Lima became the center of the governors in Peru. The Spanish administration, which has settled and gained strength in South America, has delayed Peru’s independence. In 1821, Argentine Jose de San Martin captured the land of Peru with the forces he had gathered. The forces under the command of Simon Bolivar and Antonio J. de Sucre defeated the Spaniards. After the capture of Callao in 1826, Peru declared its independence. Thus the Spanish Empire on the American continent collapsed.

Until 1846, political and political struggles emerged in the country. First, in 1822 the congress adopted a constitution and in 1823 Jose de la Riva Agüero became the first president of the country. Between 1879-84 he attacked Chile, Peru and Bolivia and captured Tarapaca, Tacna and Arica. After a struggle that lasted for many years, a 1929 agreement ended the dispute. According to the treaty, all regions outside the Arica region were returned to Peru. With a military coup in 1968, President Femando Belaunde Terry was dismissed. Until the military government continued until 1974, oil, banking, mining and fishing were nationalized.

After a hiatus of 12 years, Peru returned to democratic life in 1980. F. B. Terry was brought back to the Presidency. The new government abandoned the socialist system and brought the liberal system to the country. The country’s economy has recovered from the deadlock and returned to normal. There were some conflicts in Ecuador’s border in 1981, but it closed quickly. After that, Mao başlacu leftist terrorists started to make incidents in the country. In 1982 and 1983, these acts of terror which were accelerated were mostly against the US. In 1985, Alan Garcia Perez, who came to power, tried to suppress the actions of the crime. In 1990, Alberto Tujimori, who won the elections, quickly increased the number of leftists. On April 5, 1992, President Alberto Fujimori made a civilian coup and disbanded the congress and established a state of emergency and reconstruction. On November 13, 1992, a failed assassination attempt was made to President Alberto. Elections for the newly formed Democratic Constituent Congress were held on 22 November 1992, and the parties that supported President Alberto gained a absolute majority. Meanwhile, Guzman, the leader of the Light Road Guerrilla organization, was captured. Guzman was responsible for the death of 22,500 people in the guerrilla war that started in 1980 and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Despite this, confusion continues in the country.

Physical Structure

The area of ??Peru is approximately 1.285.216 km2. It is the third largest country of the South American continent with its vast territory. It is adjacent to Ecuador in the north, Colombia in the northeast, and Brazil, Bolivia and Chile in the east. West is covered with the Pacific Ocean. The Andes Mountains stretching from the northwest to the southeast divide the country into three main regions: the coastal zone, the Sierra region and the Martana region.

Approximately 2240 km long and ranging from 16 to 64 km, the coastal area occupies 11% of the territory of Peru. The height of the region can range from 1525 m above sea level. The most mountainous region of the country, Sierra, is approximately 340 km wide and an average 3500 m high. Huascaran Mountain in the region is 6768 m and is the highest point of the country. The peaks of the mountains, which have a height above 5000 m in the Sierra region, are constantly covered with snow. The Sierra region constitutes 33% of the country. Volcanic events are also seen in the region. El Misti is a known volcanic. Mantana, which is the largest region in the country, covers almost 56% of the surface area. The region is the region where the southern slopes of the Andes and the plateau of the Upper Amozon basin are covered with forests.

The major rivers of the country originate from the Sierra region and are concentrated in the region of Amozon. Important rivers of the country; Maranon, Huallaga, Apurimac, Urubamba, Ucayali, Napo, Yavari, Putumayo, Madre de Dios and Amozon, which is the longest of the Amozon River is about 3700 km.

There are also small rivers. Almost all of these rivers are poured into Lake Titicaca. This lake is located on the border of Bolivia. It is the widest lake in the Andes region and has a length of around 160 km. Lake Titicaca is 3810 m above sea level and is the highest lake in the world.


The coastal zone has a moderate climate. However, the Peru Cold Water Flow significantly lowers the temperature of the region. The Lima region is the driest region with an average annual rainfall of 41 mm. Regardless of the area, the area has high humidity in terms of humidity. This amount of moisture is 87% in Lima.

The Sierra region has a generally dry climate. The air temperature varies according to height and is generally cool. For example, at 3050 m high Hurancayo Mountain air temperature (-4 to 24 ° C) varies. The day-night temperatures in the country are very different because it is located close to the equator. April is more precipitation months.

The Montana region is hot and humid. The temperature in Iquitos is around 21 ° C. There are severe tropical precipitation and the average annual precipitation is about 3302 mm.

Natural Resources

The coastal zone is largely without trees. Only in the valleys of the North American legumes, bushes, Australian eucalyptus (malaria) and various fruit trees grow. It is also found in abundance of cactus and desert plants. As an animal, there are more lizards, spiders, scorpions, snails and rye (a kind of large spider, taredula).

In the Sierre region, there are many green areas and wooded areas. It grows mostly in evergreen trees and eucalyptus (malaria) type trees. There is also plenty of cocaine trees. More in the region; grows animals such as lama, alpaca, guanaco (a large animal without a camel), vikunya and chinçula (a similar animal). The Sierra region is rich in bird species. Red-breasted juniper (robin), flycatcher, finch, partridge, flycatcher, wild duck, goose and vulture are common birds in the region.

The vegetation and animals of the Montana region are almost the same as those in the Amozon basin. As a tree grows in abonosis, mahogany, cedar, rubber and coriander. The quinine is obtained from the garment. Vanilla, sapaina, fibrous plants are quite. Grows in flower type as begonia, bag flower and orchid. There are also savannas, shrubs, rough-veined plants and stunted trees. Puma, jagar, tapir, crusted lizard, pessary, anteater, maritime, crocodile, sea turtle, snake and monkey are available in ample amounts. Parrot, flamingo and butterfly species are quite large. Moth, fly and mosquito are millions.

The country’s mineral resources are quite rich. Copper is the most important mineral variety. Silver, lead, zinc, iron, cadmium, selenium, tin, gold, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, tellurium, coal, barium, salt, limestone, marble and gypsum are important minerals. Oil deposits are also available in northern regions.

Peru is also rich in surface waters. The existing three drainage systems contain more than 50 large and small rivers. All these rivers are separated branches of the Amozon River, the main source. The length of the Amozon River is approximately 3700 km. Lake Titicaca on the Bolivian border is 3810 m high above sea level and has a length of about 160 km.

Population and Social Life

The population of Peru is approximately 22,950,000. 73% of the population lives in cities. The population density is 14. Indians, which constitute the majority among ethnic groups in the country, contain 45% of the population. Almost 40% of the population is hybrid. The rest is made up of Negro and Asian groups. The majority of the white population is of Spanish origin.

The official languages ??are Spanish and Quechua native language. Two-thirds of Indians, who make up the majority of the population, use Quechua. They usually live in the Sierra area. Lake Titicaca and the remaining Indians living in South Sierra speak with the Aymara language. Hybrids and whites speak Spanish.

The majority of the population is Catholic. There have been some different classes in terms of race, economic level, social life and culture level among the people. The majority of Indians are poor people. They live on hunting and agriculture.

Literacy rate is about 72%. After the education and training law in 1972, primary school compulsory and other schools were released. Many private schools are available. There are 30 universities in the country. The most famous of them; National Education University in Lima, National Engineering University and San Marcos University.

In the people of Peru, the production of more ceramic ware is important in terms of handicrafts. Toy lama making, various rugs and carpet weaving, colored fabric making and llama, alpaca and vikunyu (a kind of llama) knitting of wool are the main branches of art.

The most developed city in the country is Lima. Other important cities are Callao, Arequipa, Trujillo, Iquitos, Cuzco and Huancayo.

Political Life

Its administrative system is a central republic based on the principles of parliamentary democracy. According to the 1980 Constitution of Peru, the president and two co-chairs are elected by popular vote. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The President must take at least 50% of the votes to be elected.

The legislative power is at the congress. The congress has two councils. The Senate has 60 members and the National Assembly has 180 members and is subject to election. Presidential and congress elections are held every 5 years. 18-year-olds can vote. It is administratively divided into one province and 24 regions. He is a member of the United Nations.


Peru’s commercial economy is largely based on minerals, agricultural products and industrial products and fisheries. The main agricultural products grown in the country are cotton, sugar beet, coffee, rice, potato, beans, corn, barley and tobacco.

Peru is a very rich country in terms of underground resources. The main minerals of the country are: copper, silver, molybdenum, lead, oil, zinc, iron, cadmium, tin, gold, coal, barium, salt, marble, gypsum, limestone, tellurium, antimony, tungsten, selenium and bismuth. The most important industries in the country are the fish and steel industries. More sardines are hunted on the coast. Another source of income in the country is forest products such as timber, rubber, quinine, dark red rosewood and Brazilian chestnut.

Peru has a very commercial income with its minerals and prepared fish dishes. The main products of export are copper, fish dishes, coffee, iron, sugar, zinc, silver, lead, cotton, gold and wool. At the beginning of 1993, foreign trade reached $ 3.3 billion. Exports to Japan and the United States more.

Machinery, foodstuffs, fuels, oils, non-metallic minerals, chemical products and steel are the main import goods. Imports are mostly done by USA and Germany.

Peru is one of the countries of the Andean Common Market. Apart from Peru, the market, including Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Bolivia, introduced a customs exemption and a common external tax system among member states.

Peru’s transportation network developed after the 19th century. The length of the railways is 3472 km. Of the 69,942 km roads, only 11% are asphalt. Airways are available from 22 airports.