Persia

Historical

B.C. Iran was known since 3000 years. It is known that the oldest known of the Elamis in the BC BC. The empire they established in 1100-600. The empire, which was founded by the Medes instead of the Elamlins, was founded by the Persian King. He destroyed it in 550 and took it under his domination, including a large part of Anatolia.

Alexander the Greeks under the command of BC In 330, they captured all the land of Iran. After that, the sovereignty of the Parthians and Sassanids continued in the Iranian territory.

The collapse of the Sassanids was caused by the Islamic armies taking over Iran. During the reign of Hazrat Umar, many flights were organized on Iran. The Islamic armies that entered into the flock of Iran, conquered Azerbaijan, Tabaristan, Djurcan, Rey, Kumis, Karvin, Zanjan, Hemedan, Isfahan and Khurasan. After the death of Hazrat Umar, some confusion occurred in Iran. On this, Hazrat-i Osman sent troops to suppress the rebellions and punished his ringleaders. Thus, the dominance of Islam was ensured in Iran.

At the beginning of the Hijri al-Umiid, the descendants of Safiyyuddin Erdebili, a Persian, established a Sunni sect in Iran. In his name, this order was given the name Safaviye. The Ottoman sultans have given many gifts to those members of the sect who served Islam. However, starting from Hodja Ali, the hostility of Eshab-i kiram started to spread among the members of this road. Then Sheikh Ibrahim, who became the head of the sect, embraced extreme Shiite views. After that, she was succeeded by Shaikh Haydar. After Sheikh Heydar’s death, his son, Shah Ismail, was crowned. Shah Ismail, destroyed the State of Akkoyunlular custody, Iran established the Safavid Dynasty. At that time Shiism was the official religion of the state. In this period, the most important issues of the dynasty was to fight the Ottomans. In 1514, the Ottoman Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim in Shahdiran, Shah Ismail was severely defeated and Tabrizi conquered (See ÇaldiranMuharebesi). After the death of Shah Ismail the throne passed to the Ottomans in the hands of the Ottomans.

The collapse of the Safavid Dynasty. The first sign of the fall was the rebellion of the Afghan Mir Veys in Kandehar in 1709. After that, Afghans frequently organized military campaigns on Iran. But they never had Iran completely. In 1729 the Safavids seized re-management. But this time, the Russian Tsar Petro Petro has been eyeing Iran to open the necessary trade routes. The Ottomans organized an expedition against Iran in order to prevent Iran from reaching the Russians. There was a danger of a war between the Ottomans and the Russians, but the two states did not agree as they thought, and they shared Iran among them. This deal didn’t last long. Tahmasb was trying to gather an army in northeastern Iran. Tsar Petro announced that he would welcome the throne to pass to the Safavid Dynasty. But it was not enough for the Safavid Dynasty to seize the throne. With Nadir Shah, the sovereignty of the Afshar line begins on Iran. But this did not last long. After the murder of Nadir Shah, a power vacuum emerged and three different opponents emerged for the throne. These are: Zendler, Afghans and Kajas. Zendlerin management of them for a short period of time to 40 years was not. After that, the country’s administration remained in the hands of the Qajars until 1925.

The period between 1925-1979 was the period when the Pahlavi dynasty was under the throne of Iran. During the time of the caliphate of the Pahlavi family, the most depressing period was the Second World War. After 1938, the influence of the German influence in Iran began to make itself felt, as a result of the presence of many Nazi-Germany technicians in Iran, especially the United States, allied states were anxious. The tension began in 1952, when Iran’s diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom advanced until the cut. The Iranian prime minister, Mossadeq, made great concessions to the Iranian Communist Party, Tudeh, and tried to use them as a lever against the West, causing unrest in the country. Thereupon the Shah, Musaddish azu dismissal of the General Zahid replaced the appointed.
In 1963, the Shah altında White Revolution altında underwent major economic and social reforms in the country. The increasing oil revenues and the large expenditures made especially for the defense of the country began to bring Iran among the countries that have a strong influence in the Middle East. The Iranian Shiite leader Khomeini, who was in exile in France at this time, gathered around the majority Shia, taking advantage of the dominance of the Shiite faith in the country. As a result of many internal and external struggles, Khomeini ruled Iran. The Shah family left Iran and began to rule with the Shia faith in the country. In 1979, the Iranian Islamic Republic of Iran, the country that took the name of the Shia, the Iranian, accused of anti-state by stealing unquestioned lead.

Iran, under Khomeini administration, started war with Iraq on 22 September 1980 and hundreds of thousands of Iranians died in this war. On 20 August 1988, the ceasefire was stopped. Ayatollah Khomeini’s death in 1989, when he was replaced by President Ali Hameney in August of the same year, and Hamedey the President of parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, as President. Upon the invasion of Kuwait by Saddam Hussein, he declared that Iran fully accepts the conditions of peace. Thus, the war that started in 1975 resulted in a peace agreement in 1990 and the diplomatic relationship between the two countries was re-established.

Physical Structure

A large part of Iran consists of high plains and large deserts. The country’s high plains are limited to the Elbrus Mountains in the north and the Zagros Mountains to the southwest. The center of this plain is covered by two large desert. Deşt-i Kebir (Salt desert) and De?-i Lut (sand desert) are a desert. During the rainy seasons, the floods come from the mountains and leave them to Dest-i Kebir.

A large part of Iranian territory is higher than 1000 m above sea level. There are North Iranian mountain ranges in the north that exceed 3000 m. In this part of Iran, Elbrus Mountains, which separates the Caspian Sea from the plateaus in the inner region of Iran, reaches to a height of 4000 m. This mountainous area towards the east descends and shrinks. To the west of the Elbrus Mountain range lies the mountainous region of Azerbaijan, where the Rezaiye Lake and its basin are located. The Tabriz Plain is located just east of Rezaiye Lake. The deepest place of Rezaiye Lake is 14 m and its surface area is 5000 km2. The mountains surrounding the south of Iran meet under the name of South Iranian Mountains. There are also many volcanic mountains in Iran. The Great Hatchet is one of the widest deserts of the earth’s flat. Kuzistan Plain is an extension of Mesopotamia. Iran is a country without large rivers. Karun, Akçay and Karaçay are the most important streams.

climate

In terms of climate, Iran is a country with very different regions. The parts facing the Caspian Sea are very moist and always rainy. All of the Iranian lands outside this region are in the subtropical arid zone.

The north-facing slopes of the Elbrus Mountains, which turn the northern sides of the Caspian Sea, are covered with rich forests, with an average rainfall of 1000-1500 mm per year. The narrow coastal plains are very humid. In the south, the climate is mild, but there is often a significant warmth. Isfahan receives a rainfall of 120 mm per year. Rains generally fall at the end of winter and early summer. The inner plains, separated by high mountains from the sea, are not affected by the low air pressure seen in the Mediterranean during the summer. Here, the climate is very hot in summers and the winters are very cold.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: the mountainous areas of Iran are covered with forests. In the coastal region of the Caspian Sea, a bushy forest cover resembles a Black Sea plant community. In these sections and highlands, high steppes take a large place. The desert areas of the desert steppes with salt marshes in the troughs of the inner regions extends. Various cultural crops are cultivated in fertile soils that can be irrigated and watered. In arid regions, they look like oasis.

There are few tigers, leopards, wolves, bears and foxes in Iranian forests today. The gazelle inhabits the empty lands around the deserts. Wild goats and various hunting birds are found in mountainous regions.

Mines: Iran is rich in minerals. In the northern and western regions, there are coal deposits between Tehran-Semnan north, Yezd and Keran, Damgan gold and Anarakranta nickel deposits. There are also bauxite, lead, antimony, cobalt, silver, tin, copper, sulfur and salt mines. Horasan’s bluish greenish jewels called Turhis are famous.

The biggest wealth of Iran is oil deposits. Iran provides 6% of the world’s oil.

Population and Social Life

The population of Iran is 59.570.000 and it falls to 20 km2. 20% of Iranian population lives in cities. The majority of the people are Persian. 60% of the people are Persian, 20% are Turks, 10% are Arabs, 8% are others and 2% are Kurds. There are around 10 million Turks in Iran. Most of the people are Shiites. The majority of the rest is Sunni and the dominance is in the hands of Shiites. The most common language in Iran is Persian. But more than half of the population uses various languages ??and dialects such as Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish, Beluchi and Gilaki. Although education is compulsory for boys and girls, this is not possible in remote villages. There are 10 universities in the country. The main cities are Tehran, Tabriz, Isfahan, Abadan and Kum.

Political Life

At the beginning of 1979 in Iran, Khomeini movement was terminated and an Islamic Republic was established. The administration in Iran, which is dominated by Shiites in the administration; The Assembly is led by a religious leader who is deemed to be the representative of the twelve Imams, the ministers, the prime minister and the president, and the custodian. With the constitutional amendment in 1989, the position of the president was strengthened.

Economy

Iran is a country of agriculture and livestock. Political developments have led to a decline in the economy, leading to a decline in national income.

Agriculture: Most of the population is engaged in agriculture. One-seventh of Iran is arable and suitable for agriculture. Most of the agricultural products are wheat and barley. Besides fruits and vegetables, rice, lentil, chickpea, sugar beet, onion, cotton, melon, watermelon, mulberry and tobacco are grown. In a narrow coastal strip on the north, agriculture can be done without the need for irrigation, and the palm is grown in the south through irrigation channels. Irrigation is a significant problem in the south and southeast of the country. In many regions, agriculture is based on old methods. Therefore, the desired result can not be obtained in agriculture.

Livestock: Livestock holds an important place in Iranian economy. Most sheep are fed. The wool of the sheep fed is sought after and very valuable. Generally, livestock is carried out in high grassland and mountains of mountains. Most sheep are fed after sheep. Fishing is done in the Caspian Sea. Here, sturgeon and caviar are obtained.

Industry: Modern industry has little development in Iran. Despite the availability of small beds, coal, iron ore, lead, nickel and copper are extracted. In addition to the carpet weaving, weaving and leather processing, Iran has also started to develop various industries. Weaving, cement, sugar factories, foundry and chemical industries are some of these. Iran’s largest source of wealth and energy is oil. Petroleum processing plants and refineries are the major industrial plants of Iran.

Oil in Iran was discovered by foreigners, processed by them, nationalized in 1951. Oil from various centers is brought to the Abadan oil refinery, one of the largest oil refineries in the world.

Trade: Iran is a country that exports more than imports. Oil is the beginning of the products exported. It sells more than 80% of the oil obtained. Other export materials are cotton, carpet, fruit, rice, wool and leather. Imported goods include sugar, machinery, textiles, steel, tea, motor vehicles.

Transportation: There are 12,000 kilometers of road and 4,601 kilometers of rail network in Iran.

The main ports of Abadan, Hürremşah, are located in the Gulf of Basra. In the Caspian Sea, Benderşah and Bender Pehlevi are also important ports. There are international airports in Tehran and Abadan.