Japan

Historical

It is believed that the first inhabitants of Japan were migrants from the islands of East Asia and South Pacific. The ancestors of the Japanese people are now known as the Yamato race and are known as M.S. In the 3rd and 4th centuries warriors and clans are believed to be the people of the same race.

At the end of the fourth century, contact was established between the kingdoms of Japan and the Korean Peninsula. After this date, China’s cultural influences were seen in Japan. He had entered here in 538 through Confucian religion and then through Buddhism, India, China, Korea.

The country’s first and permanent government center was established in Nara at the beginning of the 8th century. This empire continued for 74 years between 710 and 784. In 794 a new government center was established in Kyoto. This is where the emperor lived for a thousand years. The move of the capital to Kyoto was the beginning of the Heian era which continued until 1192.

In the Battle of Danoura in 1185, the Minamotos prevailed by destroying the rival Taira King.

The seizure of power by Minemotos has been the beginning of a seven-century period of feudal rule under the leadership of military leaders called Shogun. In 1192, Minamotolar established the government center in Kamakura near Tokyo.

In 1213, the ruling came into power from the Minomotos, the Hogos, which maintained military rule until 1333. During this period, the Mongols attacked North Kyushu twice in 1274 and 1281. The Mongols, who failed in both wars, also withdrew from Japan with the influence of the typhoons.

The short-term empires between 1333 and 1338 were followed by Ashikaga Takauji, a new military administration established in Muromachi, Kyoto. This government continued for more than two hundred years from 1338 to 1578.

In the sixteenth century, Europeans set foot in Japan. In the meantime, missionaries tried to spread Christianity here. The Japanese leaders then banned all foreigners from entering Japan, with the exception of the Dutch and Chinese traders, because they believed that Christianity and western considerations would be harmful to Japan. This small island, with Dutch merchants for two and a half centuries, has been the only point of contact between Japan and the outside world.

In 1853, the American Komodor Matthev C. Peter entered the Gulf of Tokyo with his fleet of four ships, and returned to Japan the following year, convincing the Japanese to sign a friendship agreement with his country. This agreement was followed by agreements with Russia, Great Britain and the Netherlands during the same year. These agreements turned into trade agreements four years later.

In the period of ten years until the collapse of the feudal system of Tokogaua Shogunki in 1867, a great confusion reigned.

Under the command of Emperor Meigi, Japan developed into a modern nation with modern industries, political organizations and a modern model of society. Japan fought the Chinese in 1894-1895 and the Russians in 1904 and 1905. Japan won both wars, took the Sakhalin Islands back to Russia in 1875, captured Formosa and Korea, and had some interests in Manchuria. In 1920 Japan had entered the First World War in accordance with the decisions of the Anglo-Japanese Union.

In 1937, the Japan-China War began. In 1939, Japan fought against the Germans in the First World War, and in 1939 a military alliance was established with Germany and Italy. The Japanese, who looked superior in the early years of the war, suffered heavy losses in the following years. American bombs on August 6, 1945 Hiroshima, and the August 9 atomic bombs threw Nagasaki’ye had revealed the outcome of the Second World War. On September 2, 1945, an official delivery agreement was signed with Japan, which agreed to surrender unconditionally on August 14, 1945.

Seven years later, in September 1951, Japan signed the Peace Treaty in San Francisco with 48 states. With this agreement, which entered into force in April 1952, Japan regained its independence. In 1956, Japan was accepted as a 80th state to the United Nations.

Japan, which has reached its present level of prosperity with a great economic development and has gone so far in technical and scientific life after it gained its independence, is a state that has captured almost all world markets. Liberals have been in power since the Second World War.

The Emperor Hirohito, who passed the throne in 1926, died on January 7, 1989. Instead his eldest son, Prince Akihito, passed the throne and was crowned in November 1990.

Physical Structure

Japan consists of four major islands, Hokkoida, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu, and hundreds of small islands off the coastline. 80% of the territory of Japan is mountainous. There are currently 60 active and 165 extinct volcanoes in the country. The most famous mountain in the country is Fuji with a height of 3776 m. This mountain is famous for its elegant appearance and magnificent beauty. One-fourth of the country is covered with volcanic rash and ashes. Hokkaido, the main volcano region, is the south of Kiyusiyu with the northern and central parts of Honşu.

There is a large amount of streams in Japan. These streams have a short and rapid flow length. There are also plenty of crater lakes. The largest lake is Lake Biwa.

The topographic image of Japan is sometimes full of very beautiful landscapes and sometimes very scary landscapes. Snow-fed mountain lakes, rocky gorges and noisy rivers, steep mountain peaks and magnificent waterfalls are famous places to attract tourists.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Japan’s natural vegetation and forests constitute 70% of its territory. The subtropical forests of oak, camphor and bamboo trees are located in the south. To the north of this section, there are forests consisting of broad-leaved trees. In these forests; There are birch, beech, oak, poplar and birch.

The most popular tree species in Japan, except Hokkaido, grows in almost all parts of the country and called yerinde sugi Hok or Japanese cedar. Çok Hinoki lar called çok Akamutsu ”with Japanese selvisi called” Akamutsu “after the most grown trees after Sugi’dan comes from.

Mines: Japan is very poor in terms of mineral resources and does not have many of the mines required to feed the industry. In Japan, there are small amounts of coal, lead, zinc, arsenic, bismuth, pyrite, sulfur, limestone, barite, silica stone, feldspar, dolomite and gypsum. It takes its needs from outside.

Population and Social Life

Japan’s population is 123,200,000 and it ranks seventh in terms of population surplus in the world ranking. Due to the small size of the population density is very high. 77% of the people live in cities. 58% of the people living in cities gathered in Tokyo, Osaho and Nagoya. There are seven big cities with a population of over one million. Tokyo, the capital city, has a population of 8,323,699.

Economy

Agriculture: Although the majority of the population lives in cities, agriculture is an important part of the Japanese economy. Only 16% of the total land can be planted. In Japan, agriculture is carried out with very modern methods. At the beginning of the product comes rice. The average rice production is 15.000.000 tons. After rice, most wheat, barley, millet, sugar beet, potato and bean are grown. In addition, tobacco, cotton, tea, as well as a large part of the large variety of fruits are grown.

Livestock: Lack of good grains has led to a relatively small size of livestock. Cattle, sheep and chickens are grown in farms. Although the number of them is small, the product obtained is numerous.

Forestry: Forests cover two-thirds of Japan’s total land. These forests are the main source of the country’s main building material, providing a large portion of the pulp required for paper production. The total number of employees in the forestry and timber industry is around four million. In recent years, however, it has had to import timber in response to increased demand. Lumber is second only to oil.

Fishing: Since Japan is surrounded by seas on four sides, fishing has developed. Very well equipped with modern ships almost all around the world makes fishing. On average, 15 million tons of fish are consumed in the country, and only a very small amount is exported. It is the first in the world in terms of fish production. However, Japanese fishing has declined in recent years.

Industry: Japan is the third industrial country in the world. The industry is mostly concentrated on heavy industry. Major industrial plants are ships, automobiles, electronics and optical devices, locomotives, airplanes, chemicals and all kinds of machinery manufacturing plants. 26% of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. Japanese industrial establishments are located on a belt extending from the eastern Kanto plain to Kiyusiyu. There are three industrial centers in this region. These are the Keihin region, the Hanshin region and the Chukyo region. The Keihin region includes the cities of Tokyo, Yokohama and Kawasaki. The Hanshin region includes the cities of Osaka, Hyogo and Kyoto. The Chukyo region is surrounded by the dark surroundings with the city of Nagoyo. The industrial centers of Japan, which developed after the war, were founded on the land gained from the sea.

Trading: Exports large amount of industrial products from Japan. The most important product of Japan, which realizes most of the trade by sea, produces machines with a ratio of 30%. This is followed by iron and steel products, cotton products, transportation vehicles, ships, optical devices, raw silk, glass, porcelain, toys, electronic vehicles and fish products.

Imported oil comes from the beginning of the products. This is followed by iron ore, wheat. They also import raw cotton, wool, rubber, raw materials and timber.

Trade with almost all countries of the world. The most traded is USA and Canada, followed by Asian countries.

Transportation: The total length of roads in Japan is 1,098,900 kilometers. Only 65% ??of these roads are asphalt. The length of the railways is around 26,000 km. Railway transportation plays a more important role in Japan than land transportation. Speed ??and underground trains are famous.

Sea transportation is developed because it is an island state. There are many ports all around the world. Most of the trade is provided by the sea trade fleet.

Air transportation: provided by Japan Airlines. The most important airports in Tokyo and Osaka are international airports. There are 71 airports with scheduled flights.