Egypt

Historical

Egypt is one of the richest countries in the world. Egypt has been the cradle of many civilizations throughout history. According to the results from the archaeological excavations, the first known date of BC. It starts with the Kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, founded in 5000 BC. The oldest of them is the Pharaoh period.

The pyramids, which remain as secrets to date and the first among the seven wonders of the world, were built in their time. The secrets such as the transportation of giant stone blocks which are used in the construction of the pyramids and some of them can reach up to 15 tons, and that their calculations are appropriate for the number of Pir pi ulaşabil and the most remote places are not solved. In addition, the sphinxes, which are a separate enigma of their formations and which take various animal shapes with the effect of the winds, are attracting their astonishment. This is followed by the Menes Dynasty and the Persian domination. Dara, the last of the Persians, the Kyaniyan king; When he was defeated in Erbil, Egypt passed into Alexander the son of Macedonian King Philip. He set up Alexandria. His morals are broken with his victories. In the end, he died of anger and misery. After that, Egypt remained under Roman and Byzantine rule until 640.

At that time, Hazret-i Ömer sent an army from the Eshab-i rent to the conquest of Egypt under the command of Amr ibn as. Egypt was conquered and the garrison of El-Fustat (Old Cairo) was founded. All the people of Egypt were honored by these dates.

In the time of the Caliph al-Muawiyah, Arabic became the language of the people. Egypt, which was brought together with religion and language, experienced a golden revolution in the period of Abbasids in terms of prosperity and peace. After the Abbasids until 1171 Fatimid remained in the hands. At that time, Saladin was conquered by Ayyubi. After the Ayyubids, Egypt was ruled by the Mamluk Sultans of Turkish origin until the 16th century. Innovations were made in the administrative, military, economic and many other fields in the time of the Mamluks. Egyptian traders have taken over the Chinese-European trade, taking advantage of the country’s strategic and economic position.

At the same time, the Ottoman Empire was experiencing the rise period. Sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim Han, 1516’da Egypt Expedition. He first defeated the Mamluks in the Mercidabık plain. He spent the desert of Sinai 13 days without any casualties. Then he defeated the Mamelukes in Ridaniye and added Egypt to the Ottoman lands. Thus, the Ottoman Empire had land on three major continents and served to spread and strengthen Islam here.

In 1798, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonoparte invaded Egypt in order to close the path of India to India. However, he was defeated by Cezzar Ahmed Pasha in Akka Castle. The French then retreated. Meanwhile, Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was sent to Egypt for help. The French were defeated and withdrew in 1801. Mehmed Ali Pasha stayed in Egypt and became governor. He brought technical equipment and specialist personnel from Western countries. He opened many madrasahs and schools and became the most powerful leader of Egypt. He sent the Egyptian navy for help in the Ottoman-Greek War of 1827. It also opened channels for the development of agriculture and enriched the Egyptian economy. Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Pasha was a good man of his religion. After that, Egypt broke down. He was succeeded by Ibrahim Pasha, his eldest son and governor of Jeddah. İbrahim Pasha, by order of Sultan Mahmud Khan, waged war with the Wahhabis and took the cities of Derıniyye. Then he suppressed the Mora Rebellion. In the meantime, Sultan Mahmud II rebelled against Khan and came to Kütahya. Syria, Adana and Egypt were given to him. He received the title of “Khedive” (Khedive), who was an independent governor. The second time he rebelled against Britain and Syria was again in the Ottomans. After his death in 1848, the first Abbas, then in 1854, Saeed Pasha, son of Ibrahim Pasha was the Khedive. Said Pasha built the Suez Canal and Port Said. After his death, his brother İsmail Pasha became the Khedive. When this was dismissed in 1879, he was succeeded by his son Tevfik Pasha. The British were involved in the Egyptian administration at the time.

In these years, the members of the Cairo Masonic Lodge, of which Cemaleddin-i Efgani was headed, were operating in cooperation with the British. Introduced as a man of religion, Abduh was among them. Egypt, which was weakened economically and militarily, was thus occupied by the British in 1882.

The British, along with the famous spy captain Lavrens, began to divide the locals into Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The uncoordinated and indecisive policies of the Unionists failed to prevent these developments and caused these countries to gradually leave the Ottoman Empire. Thus, after Egyptian Tevfik Pasha, Abbas Hilmi Pasha, Hüseyin Kamil Pasha and Ahmed Fuad Pashas took the control. Fuad Pasha left the Ottomans and took the name of Melik. Upon his death in 1936, his son Faruk became a melike. During the Second World War, German and Italian troops attacked Egypt. Egypt did not participate in the war until 1945. At that time, he declared war on Japan and Germany. In the same year, he gained independence and became a member of the UN.

Internal rebellions, foreign debts, channel problems and various warfare brought heavy burdens to Egypt. That is why the military revolution in 1952 and Melik Faruk was taken abroad. The following year the republic was declared and the general Necib became the President. In 1956, Sudan left Egypt. The military revolution was made by young officers. Cemal Abduh Nasır was among the most powerful in the army. Two years later, when Nebib wanted to put an end to the military administration, Nasser, who already had different ideas, arrested Najib and seized Egypt.

Nasır brought socialism to Egypt with his policy. He broke Egypt from the western world and dropped it into the arms of Russia. Russian military and technical support opened its doors. About 60 thousand Muslims were brought to the dungeons for various reasons. Nationalized many organizations. He infiltrated his toxic ideas into other Arab countries. Between 1958 and 1961, Syria was in the process of reunification with Syria. Meanwhile, disagreements began with Israel. Egypt-Israel relations became tense. When Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt, but the US and Russia warned against the attack. UN power was installed in the Israeli border and the Gulf of Aqaba. In 1967, Nasir had these forces back. He shut the canal off Israeli ships. Israel then attacked Egypt and destroyed the Egyptian Air Force. After six days of war, Israel occupied the Sinai region.

When Nasir died in 1970, he was replaced by Anwar Sadat. Egypt attacked Israel in 1973. At the end of the 1975 and 1977 negotiations, the Camp David summit took place. According to this, while Israel withdrew from Sinai, Egypt agreed to open the Channel to Israeli ships.

During Sadat, Egypt was separated from Russian influence and socialism. He made peace with Israel and approached the United States. Unlike Nasser’s policy, Egypt brought it into a liberal and free world system, but its leadership in the Arab world was shaken and its military support weakened. Finally, on 6 January 1981, Sadat was killed as a result of an assassination. Instead of former Air Force Commander Hosni Mubarak became president. In January 1991, Hosni Mubarak, alongside the allied forces in the Gulf operation, has resorted to various remedies to get rid of foreign debts.

Physical Structure

Northeast Africa is located in northeastern Africa and connected to the Sinai Peninsula and Asia. Egypt, which is in the shape of a square in the shape of the sea, south and west of the sea, is located between 23 ° north and 31 ° north latitudes and between 25 ° east and 35 ° east longitude. It has a key position in Asia, Europe and Africa due to its strategic position.

The Nile River, the lifeblood of Africa and Egypt, divides the country into four regions: the Nile River basin, the Sinai Peninsula, the East (Arab) Desert, and the regions of the western and southern deserts.

The Nile River is 6390 km long, with the beginning of Lake Victoria. If the source of the Kagera River pouring into this lake is accepted as the beginning, it will be 6671 km. According to this, it is the longest one among the rivers of the world, regardless of their arms. Once connected with the Nile, Bahrelgazal and Blue Nile, it enters into Egyptian lands with 250 m. It crosses the whole of Egypt and separates arms in Cairo and reaches the Mediterranean by making a large delta. The length of the Nile River, which is 500 km long and 500 km long after reaching Nasser Lake, is around 2 km. Here one is divided into two main branches, another to the Suez Canal. The delta between the two large branches of the Nile River, Reşit and Damietta, which can reach 23 km in some places, is 23 km. It is 250 km long and 160 km long. As if Egypt is in this region. With the green and fertile watershed of the Nile, the lifeblood of Egypt, Nil, and the green and fertile watershed of the region, left the vast lands of 1.001.449 km2, the majority of which were formed by the yellow desert, and squeezed Egypt to 36,000 km2.

The west and south deserts, which are the continuation of the Libyan Desert and the extension of the Greater Sahara of 10,000,000 km2, are three quarters of the country. The average height of the surface area of ??673.000 km2 of desert plateau is 250 m, except for the rocky rugged terrain at an altitude of 2000 meters in the south west. East (Arab) Lake on the coast of the Red Sea is relatively mountainous, the highest reaches 2100 m, in the north the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea in the south, the Suez Canal in the West and the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gaza Strip in the east, the Gulf of Israel and the south The Sinai Peninsula is a plateau covered with sharp hills such as the East Lake region. These high terrains are full of many straits and passages that make up the Asian-African connections.Mount Sinai, which is the highest peak of Egypt, is 2641 m and Mount El Thbet is 2439 m.

The Mediterranean coasts of Egypt, which are about 1000 m long, are generally erect and unsealed. The delta mouth formed by the Nile River is partially flat. The shores of the Red Sea are 1800 km. Some places are low and sandy and some places are quite high. Current coral reefs are unacceptable. With the Suez Canal opened in 1869, the Mediterranean and the Red Sea were united and the sea route to India was shortened.

Climate

Egypt has a warm and dry climate. Two seasons prevail, summer and winter. The winter months are not hard, but rather soft. On the Mediterranean coast, rainfall is about 200 mm. In the southern regions, the summer days can reach up to 43 ° C and the temperature drops to around 15 ° C in winter. Egypt’s temperature difference between day and night is high. For example, the temperature in the desert region at 37 ° C during the day, can be as low as 15 ° C at night. In addition to the north winds affecting the country, the ortaya hamsin ve wind that emerged in April and May causes sandstorms. This scorching wind runs eastward from the western and southern deserts of the Western Sahara, which covers 80% of the country.

Natural Resources

The arid and warm climate of Egypt prevented the existence of forest areas and the enrichment of vegetation. The coastal areas, lakes and basins in the deserts of the desert and the greenery around the wells are lush and fertile. In other regions it is mostly yellow desert. Deserts generally have arid vegetation. Nile waters, the only source of life in the country, constitute the most important natural resource. The Nile River waters are taken under control, and therefore, only three crops are purchased per year from the fertile delta of the Nile Valley, which constitutes only 1 / 28th of the country. The lake of Assuan sun kmi, south of Nile waters, is 3000 km, the surface area is 5000 km2 and the deepest place is 70 m.

As in vegetation, animals are more mediocre in Egypt than in domestic animals. In the desert regions, the inhabitants generally live gazelles, nubian goats, hyenas, jackals, desert foxes, hares and lynxes. There are also many species of birds and wild ducks. If the plateaus in the areas of rough sting and ostrich live. The waters of the Nile are rich in freshwater bass.

The most important underground source is petroleum. The western and eastern deserts, the Suez Bay and the Sinai Peninsula are rich in oil. Iron ore, phosphate, limestone and salt are other important natural resources.

Population and Social Life

The bridge between Africa and Asia and Europe and Egypt, which is a transit hub between India and the Far East, has been the scene of many invasions throughout history. Her strategic position has made her a major influence in such large matters as the African Union, the Arab Nationalism and the Islamic World. The geography of the country has caused 99% of the Egyptians to live in a narrow basin due to the fusion of many different nations.

Egypt, with a population of 55.979.000, is the most populous country in Africa after Nigeria. Despite the lack of industrialization, the population density in the Nile Valley is almost double that of the densely populated Western European nations. The vast majority of the population consists of whites of Hami descent. There are also Coptic and Nubian people. 99% of the population is Muslim. Arabic is the main language of the people. The Arabic that the fellahs (peasants) live in the villages alone are slightly different from those spoken in the cities. They are also widely spoken in English and French.

People can be divided into five groups in terms of life style. In Egypt, among the developing countries, there are differences between the fellahs (peasants) that constitute the majority of the population, the living and the commercial classes, which are usually living in cities, as well as in the language of life. The administrative level, which generally knows Turkish, is mostly Arabs, North Africans, Turks and British. In addition, today, the Bedouins, who live in the oases with the remaining land owners, have lost their political power. The Egyptian leaders in recent years have increased the number of schools, students, teachers and experts especially after 1952 because they believe that many economic and political problems can be solved through education and training. Only primary education is compulsory, others are optional and free. There are 7 universities other than foreign schools. The most famous are the Al-Azhar University. 50% of the population is literate.

Cairo, the largest city in the African continent, is the cultural center of the Arab world. This city, which was founded in 969 by Arabs, is a modern tourism center with plenty of old and historical artifacts. One of the seven wonders of the world, Alexandria Lighthouse is located in Alexandria, the temple of Abu-Simbel Assuan and the world’s largest sphinx with the three largest pyramids in Giza, other important big cities are. The sphinx named yüksek Horus uzun next to the pyramid of Kefren from the three pyramids in Giza is 73 m long and 20 m high.

Egypt Turkish works of art: Egypt has remained under Turkish influence from the year 826 until the late Ottomans. Many works were built in Egyptian style in Egypt, which was started to be governed by Turkish governors from the time of the Abbasids. The tombs of the Abbasid caliphs in Cairo are beautiful examples of Turkish architecture. Ahmad bin Tulun, one of the Abbasid Governors, built the Ibn-i Tulun Mosque, which still stands today. The fact that this mosque is made of bricks and that the building is like a castle is clearly showing the effects of Turkestan and Samarra in its architectural style. As in Uighur structures, motifs are large and simple.

At the times of Ayyubids, darülhadis, tekke and iwaned madrasahs were built in Turkestan style.

During the Mameluke period, the Turkish ruler, women and gentlemen had built many mosques, complexes, madrasas, lounges, tombs and inns in Turkish architectural style. Today, most of them stand as the Mamluk art monuments.

After the conquest of Egypt by Yavuz Sultan Selim, the architectural style of the Mameluke was forgotten and the Ottoman architectural style was settled in Egypt. Masjids, fountains and monopolies built by the governors during the Ottoman period were built in Ottoman architectural style. Examples include the Suleymaniye Mosque, the Mahmudiye Mosque, the Murad Pasha Mosque, the Mehmed Ali Mosque, the Kethüda Abdurrahman Sabil, and the Ottoman ones. Ottoman mosques in Egypt is the largest domes and minarets fine classical Ottoman monuments, tiles were brought from Turkey.

Political Life

The Republic of Egypt, which is based on the presidential system, is divided into 25 administrative regions (provinces). The president, who is considered the strongest leader, is elected by the public every six years. He establishes the government and conducts the presidency. He also has a vice president who will help him. The remaining 392 members of the assembly, whose ten members are elected by the president, are elected by the people for five years. Egyptian provinces are governed by the olup provincial council edil, which consists of representatives of the governors and the governors.

The military coup in Egypt in 1952 overturned Melik Farouk and the transfer of a new political system began.

During Sadat period, a policy towards more peaceful and economic development was followed. The result was peace with Israel through the US-sponsored Camp David Peace Treaty. Economic development was also carried out and nuclear power plants were built. Hosni Mubarak, who replaced him after Anwar Sadat, did not make any changes to the Sedat model, which is a life of liberal economy, private enterprise, freedom of press and multi-party democracy.

Economy

Egypt is the richest country in Africa in terms of per capita income. But it is among the countries of the world. Before 1980, Egypt was among the ten worst countries in the world. After the Camp David Agreement, Enver was one of the fastest developing countries in the world with 10% development speed with Sadat’s new economic measures.

Egypt was a rather poor and unstable country before the regulation of irrigation systems. After that, the Nile waters were taken under control with the canals opened and the irrigation systems built. Thus, the amount of products that can only be taken once a year is tripled. The Nile Valley and the delta are suitable for agriculture. The most important of the water control systems such as dams and irrigation systems which cause the increase of arable areas is the Great Assuan Dam. The construction of this dam was planned by Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha and was completed in 1902 due to various reasons. Lastly, the dam, which was upgraded in 1934, was 4 km long and 110 meters high, making a new land area of ??500,000 hectares available for cultivation. Immediately to the south of the dam is Nasser Lake, 554 km long and 5000 km2.

Thus, 10 billion KW of electricity can be generated from dams with twelve turbines annually. The dam with a volume of 130 billion cubic meters of water has caused a three-fold increase in agricultural products over the last two decades.

In the vicinity of the dam, in the Nile valley and delta and in the coastal regions more cotton, beans, corn, wheat, sugarcane, oil, rice, onions, potatoes, vegetables and fruits are grown.

Egypt is rich in minerals. Petroleum, manganese, zinc, iron, lead, phosphate, chromium, gold, asbestos, sulfur, tungsten and titan are the most important minerals. In addition, limestone, salt, basalt and pink marble are quite abundant.

The most important export products; Cotton, rice, petroleum, natural gas, phosphate, salt, iron, manganese, cigarettes, post and leather. On the other hand, it buys wheat, machinery, technical equipment, war weapon, tools and equipment.

The Egyptian economy is based on industry and tourism other than agriculture. Textile, chemical products, petro-chemistry and cement are the major industries. The current old and historical artifacts attract attention of tourists in every season with its suitable climate and coast. The pyramids and the lighthouse of Alexandria, royal tombs and sphinxes are the major tourist income sources. Besides, Egypt has the traces of many nations with its long and varied history. Especially the Umayyads, Abbasids, Mamluks and mosques and madrasahs dating from the Ottomans, inn and caravanserais are important historical places.

One of Egypt’s other major sources of income is the existing oil wells in the Suez Canal and the Sinai Peninsula.

The Suez Canal was present since the time of the Pharaohs. B.C. In the year 600, the Nile and the Red Sea were united. Later, it was filled with sand. In the times of Yavuz Sultan Selim Khan, Second Selim Khan and Third Khan, attempts were made to channel and finally the canal was excavated in 1859 by the use of more than 50,000 workers in the time of Hajj Said Said. It was put into service in 1869, and three years later its bills were sold to England, but it was nationalized in 1956. The channel has a width of 150 m, a depth of 14 m and a length of 172 km and meets more than half of the Egyptian trade balance. Although the 1967 Israeli War led to the loss of these revenues, it again began to contribute to the pace of economic development after Enver Sadat’s realization of the Camp David Treaty.

Transportation: There is an adequate transportation network between settlements in Egypt. Railways up to 5335 km are operated by the state. The length of the roads has reached 32,241 km. 52% of these roads are covered with asphalt.

Most of the railways and highways are located along the Nile Basin, where the settlement is densely populated.