Cuba

History

Cuban natives; The first inhabitants of Cuba were Guanahatabey and Kiboni Indians who came to the island from South America. Taynolar (Antil Aravakları) settled in the island later became agriculturalists and a peaceful people who reached a certain level in making pots and tools. It was about 80-100 thousand.

The first permanent settlement in Cuba, where Christopher Columbus first explored (October 1492) in his first voyage (October 1492), was established in 1511. The oppression and exploitation of colonists, epidemics, hunger and immigration. century, the peace and order provided in the region along with the colony’s population has reached 50 thousand.At the beginning of the regular voyages from Spain increased the commercial and strategic importance of Havana. In order to close the labor shortage that emerged with the end of the slave trade in 1865, the Mexican Indians and the Chinese began to be brought to the island as a contracted laborer.

Since the end of the 19th century, Spain’s inability to provide the necessary labor, capital, machinery, technical skills, and markets for sugar production and exports led to a gradual weakening of its political and economic ties with Cuba. started to gain power in production and trade. The fact that the Spaniards did not compromise the demand for autonomy on the island and further increased the taxes caused the Ten Years War to start (1868 – 1878). In 1895, when the Cuban poet and journalist Jose Marti, in exile, brought together political organizations in exile, a war of independence, based on the guerrilla tactics, began. The United States of America, which is active in its economy, led to the war against Spain by using the sinking of the ship Maine ship anchored in Havana harbor.

The independence of Cuba, envisaged in the framework of the Paris Treaty signed after the end of the Spanish – American War (1898), entered into force on January 1, 1899 under the invasion of the United States. After receiving the right to have a say in Cuba’s internal and external relations and to establish a naval base at Guantanamo Bay, he withdrew his troops from the island. It has opened the way for a form of government based on social injustice. In particular, the actions of the Cuban clans of African descent for political rights and better job opportunities have been hardly suppressed. In 1933, Fulgencio Batista, who had overthrown Gerardo Machado with the support of the United States in 1933, left his mark on the Cuban leadership for many years as the most famous dictator. In addition, the rise in the unemployment rate, the fact that the vast majority of the population remained in poverty, and the economy was increasingly exogenous led to an effective opposition to the Batista administration.

Fidel Castro, who led one of the groups targeting the dictatorship in the 1950s, was imprisoned for a period due to a failed raid on the Moncada Barracks (1953). Castro in Mexico in 1955 after the 26th July Movement launched in Argentina, the organization, including the revolutionary revolutionary Che Guevara in December 1956 in Cuba, the guerrilla movement launched in Cuba in time, taking support from other groups Batista’ya troops are important After the dictator Fulgencio Batista left Cuba on January 1, 1959, a new leadership began in Havana with a force of a thousand people under Castro. (Cuban Revolution)
Fidel Castro, who gained the support of a large part of the government as a result of deep-rooted land reform, gained weight with the alliance he established with the Cuban Socialist People’s Party. Decapitation accelerated Castro’s close relationship with the USSR and turned towards a socialist line. In the 1960s, the increasing military spending due to the pressure of the United States led to shock in the economy. At the same time, Cuba was pushed to diplomatic loneliness because of its support for the revolutionary movements in Latin America. I.

In the 1970s, the party and the state were stabilized in the economy with the improvement in the economy. In the meantime, Castro’s leadership in the administration was strengthened. sending unresponsive to the invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR, an unconnected country, caused some reactions in the Third World. The fact that the United States of America and the United States of America intervened in Grenada between the 120,000 Cubans who migrated to Cuba after the permission of the Cuban regime to travel to the United States in 1980 made the relations between the two countries even more tense. The wave of change surrounding it did not affect Cuba politically.

Cuba was driven to an economic impasse due to the help of the Soviet aid cut after the Cold War, and turned to tourism investments, and limited private investments were allowed. In this period, a limited improvement was observed in relations with the United States. In July 2006, Fidel Castro temporarily handed over his presidential duties to his brother, Raul Castro.

culture

Cuban culture in terms of Spanish and African influence in terms of the historical traces of the United States due to historical ties with the North American sports are popular among the public. Baseball, including basketball, volleyball, athletics and boxing in Cuba, widely played and successful in international competitions sports

Cuban cuisine; It is a mixture of spanish and caribbean in general. The meat, seafood, corn and black beans are consumed a lot.

Cuban literature has a rich and qualified heritage especially in the field of poetry. century poet Jose Marti and Nicolás Guillén who lived in the 20th century is one of the important Cuban literati. The famous song Guantanamera is the work of the revolutionary hero of Cuba, Jose Marti. The song is Nicholas Guillen’s.

Managerial Conditions

Cuba has a socialist state structure based on one-party sovereignty. The weight of the Cuban Communist Party (PCC) in state administration has been clearly stated in the 1976 Constitution. The government uses the National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular).

Geography

It is located at the beginning of the Crab Cycle and at the entrance of the Gulf of Mexico. It covers more than 3,715 islands and islands, as well as the main island with the same name. The nearest neighbor, Haiti, 77, Bahamas 140, Jamaica 146, United States 180, Mexico 210 and Cayman Islands 240 km away. The second largest island of the country is the island of Juventud The highest point is Turquino Peak (2005 m) .Total land area is 110,861 km². Annual average temperature is 26 C. It has a semi-tropical climate determined by two seasons. Hurricanes between September and October sometimes cause great destruction. The total length of the coasts is 3735 km and there is a 29 km land border with the United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay.

Population

Cuba is a very complex population of the past centuries, different ethnic communities settled in the island in the past centuries.In the pre-colombian period between 80-100 thousand island natives, today, only a few families living on the east end of the island remains. European and African people, 37%, whites, 11% of blacks and 1% of Chinese people. Chinese population in the 19th century, brought to the island for the railway and mining jobs are the grandchildren of China. Birth rate is 11.6 / 1000 .

Population: 11,382,820 (July 2006 data)
Population growth rate: 0.31% (2006 data)
Birth rate 11.6 births / 1000 people (2006 data)
Death rate 7.22 deaths / 1,000 people (2006 data)
Refugee rate: – 1.57 refugees / 1,000 inhabitants (2006 estimates)
Infant mortality rate: 6.22 deaths / 1,000 born infants (2006 estimate)
Life expectancy: Total population: 77.41 years
In males: 75.11 years
Women: 79.85 years (2006 data)
Average number of children: 1.66 children / 1 woman (2006 estimate)
Number of adults infected with HIV / AIDS: 0.10% (2003 data)
Number of HIV / AIDS – deaths: less than 200 (2003 data)
Nation: Cuban
Economy

Cuban economy is largely a state-controlled planned economy based on socialist principles. Although private sector investments have increased in the recent years, most of the production vehicles are operated by the state. In 1992, 80% of foreign trade was realized and the subsidies for agricultural production were subsidized. The US embargo was softened after the depressive period. However, after Soviet aid disappeared and trade relations deteriorated, the economy had deteriorated for a while, and then it moved from agriculture to industry. In the agricultural sector, where 21% of the workforce is employed, sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee and rice are important production and export items. Fishing and animal husbandry, which are particularly important in socialist regime, is one of the major production items. Thanks to the tourists coming from Turkey, tourism has become the driving force of the Cuban economy. China, Canada, Spain and the Netherlands are the biggest foreign trade partners of Cuba. The basis of trade is the nickel which has a significant share in the export items (6.4% of the world production) The GNP per capita is about $ 3,500 and the standard of living is still not brought to the level before 1990. The biggest supporter of petroleum is China.