When Christopher Columbus came out to a small island near the shores of the Caribbean on September 18, 1502, he named it bir Costa Rica ında which means çıktı Rich Coast Krist because of the gold deposits here.
Today’s natives of the country are Spain, who migrated here from Guatemala in the sixteenth century. Since there were no Indians and African slaves here, the Spaniards committed their own territory. The colonial era of Costa Rica was in poverty and misery.
Costa Rica, which declared its independence on September 15, 1821, was thus saved from the Spanish yoke. Until 1838, his foreign policy was tied to the Central American Union. In 1838 he left the unit.
In 1842, the government of Braulio Carilol was overthrown by General Francisco Morasan to form the Central American Association. But soon after he was killed, he was killed. After that, a 7-year period of anarchy began in the country. In 1849, former President Mora came to work again. The scheme provided and made reforms. After that, in Costa Rica, which changed half a dozen presidents from 1859 to 1870, a strong government was formed by Tomas Guordia after 1879, and in December 1871 a constitution was issued.
In the nineteenth century, the economy began to develop in the country. For the pressure of America and for various reasons, the heads of state have changed continuously.
Under the leadership of Refael Calderon Guordia in 1940, Costa Rica’s relations with the United States improved. When the Japanese attacked Peal Harbor, he and the United States declared war on Japan. She helped in the defense of the Panama Canal. In 1944, Costa Rica became a member of the United Nations, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the IMF.
As a result of the internal turmoil in the elections held on 8 February 1948, José Figueres made a revolution, took over the administration and put in force the old constitution. In 1949 Ulate Blanca was elected president. To date, the country has experienced different presidents period. After 1949, the Army did not interfere in our administration. Costa Rica, which adopts democracy, is one of the best American countries to implement this regime.
The surface shapes of the country are examined in three main sections. Behind the coast of Karaib Karaib, there is a narrow and alluvial land. In this area, the northwest-southeastern elevation belt with Cordillera de Guanacaste to the north and Cordillera de Talamana to the south; to the west of the ridge belt, between the Nicaya and Osa peninsula, the coast of the Great Ocean.
Elevations start at the west of Lake Nicaragua. Irazu 3432 m and Turrilaba 3328 m form the highest volcanoes in the country. Talamanca Mountain range of 2740 m high hills are found.
The eastern coasts of the country are indentations and protrusions, while the west coasts are numerous. Coco Island, 480 km away from the west coast, belongs to Costa Rica. The hillsides that descend from the mountainous interior to the coastal plains are quite steep.
In the coastal plains where the East Alize winds dominate, the humid equatorial climate prevails, while the central parts are warm and the climates dominate in high places. But the cold is not violent. The average temperature in the coast is between 25 and 32 ° C, in the middle between 21 and 27 ° C is between. In high regions it does not exceed 10 ° C. No snow in the country. The average annual rainfall ranges between 3100 and 6350 mm.
Vegetation and animals: Marshes and forests occupy about a third of the country. North Caribbean coasts and the Pacific Ocean coasts are covered with tropical forests. Oak and pine trees are found in the forests. In the regions above the altitude of 2400 m, forests sparse and replaced with grasslands and pastures. A wooded area covers the eastern parts of the Nicoya peninsula.
The most common wild animals in the country include tapir, arrow hedgehog and crocodile.
Mines: The territory of the country is not rich in minerals. A small amount of gold is removed.
Population and Social Life
The population of the country is 3.161.000 and this population is made up of white-born Spanish whites, Negroes and Indians. In the country where population growth is high, a large part of the population is gathered in the metropolitan area. Only 34% of the people live in cities. The important settlements are San José, Alajuela, Heredia and Cartago.
The official language is Spanish and correspondence with English is maintained in some state affairs. The vast majority of the people are dependent on the Catholic sect of Christianity. There are also Jews and Protestants.
Education in the country is free. Primary education is compulsory between the ages of 6-12, and the number of illiterates is low. There are two universities in Costa Rica.
The country is headed by the head of state. There are only 57 members in the country. There is an election for the Assembly every 4 years. Voting is compulsory.
Agriculture: Since Costa Rica’s economy is based on agriculture, 55% of the population is engaged in agriculture. For example, in Central, coffee, dairy products, sugar, beans and potatoes are obtained. Most produced coffee and bananas are exported to the outside. Livestock is developed and the herds of cattle are found in the Guanaceste region. It is the country that exports the most dairy products of Central America.
Industry: The industry is undeveloped in the country, and the small-scale industry includes sugar refineries, fertilizer plants, pesticides and consumables.
Trade: Costa Rica sells coffee, bananas and milk outdoors, and buys industrial products from the outside. In commercial relations, the country’s economy depends on the USA. Although the balance of external payments has given a deficit, the economy of the country is progressing rapidly compared to that of other Central American countries.
In addition, various places with natural beauties and artifacts from the Spanish civilization attract the tourists and become a good source of income for the country’s economy.
Transportation: Transportation, approximately 35.357 km of highways, is provided with 1500 km of railways connecting the two shores. Highways are inadequate and neglected. 15% is covered with asphalt. Puertolimon, Puontarenas, Golfito are the main ports. Juan Santa Maria near San José is the country’s only international airport.