The territories of Colombia were discovered by the Spaniards under the command of Ganzalo Jiménez de Quesada and Sebastian de Balalcozar at the beginning of the 16th century and turned into a colony.

Until the eighteenth century, the country was ruled by whites of Spanish origin. After that, the struggle for independence was strengthened by North America and France.

In 1886, the country was named after Columbus, who discovered the continent, and the Republic of Colombia was proclaimed. In 1903, Panama became an independent state with the aid of the US. Due to this separation, there was tension between the USA and Colombia until 1921. After this date, the Liberal Party, the two big parties to the Colombian Party and the Conservative Party was dominated. But the friction between the two parties led to internal turmoil and the country being ruled by dictators for a long time. Today, internal civil unrest continues in Colombia, which is governed by civilian government.

Physical Structure

In terms of physical structure, Colombia is divided into three different regions.

Coast: Colombia is the only country in South America that has two large oceans. The Siarra Baudo region on the shores of the Great Ocean, the shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and all the shores except the Santa Marta region are flat and low.

Mountains: The Colombian Andes open in the form of a fan near the south-western border of the country, extending to the north and northeast, creating three mountain ranges. They are called Eastern Cordillera, Central and Western Cordillera. The western Cordillera Mountains are relatively low. However, there are high hills such as Cumbal Volcano (4892 m).

Middle Cordillera is high and the hills are covered with snow. The Cauca River, which is located between the West and the Central Cordillera, floods the Cauca River.

The wide valley between the central and eastern Cordillera mountains, the waters of the Meydelona River. The highlands of 2000-3000 m in the Eastern Cordillera Mountains are very high. This region creates the agricultural area of ??the country with its fertile land.

Eastern region: This region is a large and flat area, irrigated by the tributaries of large rivers such as Orinoko and Amazon. The northern part of this region is covered with savanna and the southern part is covered by equatorial forests. Only about 20% of the population lives in the region, which constitutes about half of the country’s territory.


Because of Colombia’s proximity to the equator, the climate is tropical. Climate varies by region. An average annual precipitation of 10.160 mm falls to the west of Western Cordillera, while the average annual precipitation on the coast of the Caribbean Sea is below 255 mm. In the eastern part, the humid tropical climate prevails.

Natural Resources

Vegetation and animals: Vegetation also varies according to regions such as climate. Tropical forests around the Amazon, swamp bays on the shores of the Great Ocean; moist grasslands in the northern part; mountain plants in high mountains; There are desert plants in La Guajira. The country, which has such a diverse flora, has jaguar, lion, fox, mammalian bears like bears, birds approaching two thousand, numerous insects and reptiles.

Mines: The country is rich in underground resources. There are various metals such as oil, gold, platinum, emerald, coal, iron and limestone. It takes second place in the world in platinum production.

Population and Social Life

The population of the country is 33.292.000 and consists of four ethnic groups. Indians constitute 7% of the population, 5% are blacks, 20% are whites and the rest are hybrids.

Most of the population is concentrated on the plateaus of the Eastern Cordillera Mountains and on the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean. Major cities spread to different parts of the country. Important cities: Medellin, Berangu and Cartogena.

The official language is Spanish. But the words of the languages ??of the Indians and blacks were enriched and changed. Most of the people belong to the Catholic sect of Christianity.

Education: 5 years of primary education in the country is compulsory and free. One of the countries with the highest literacy rate in South America is Colombia. 80% of the people are literate. There are 22 universities.

Political Life

The legislative power in the country governed by a Republic based on the presidential system rests with the Parliament. The parliament consists of a 112-member senate and a 214-member assembly, elected for 4 years.


Agriculture: Agriculture is usually based on coffee production. It takes first place in coffee production in the world. Coffee grows mostly in the valleys of Cauca and Magdalena. Coffee, corn, sugarcane, cotton, banana, rice, potatoes, wheat and tobacco are grown. Livestock breeding is usually developed on the coast of the Caribbean and on the plains in the east of the East.

Industry: Industry moves in the country have been successful in recent years. Industrial centers are gathered around three major cities. Textile industry has progressed. There are oil refineries, cement, rubber, paper mills, food processing factories and automobiles, electrical appliances and chemicals factories, which are generally established with foreign investments.

Trade: The most important product of the Colombian trade is coffee. Half of its exports make coffee. It follows oil, banana, cotton, sugar, platinum, gold, tobacco and cattle. Outside, it buys motor vehicles and machinery.

Transportation: Transverse mountain ranges of the country prevent road construction. The length of railways in the country is 106,218 km and the length of the railways is 3500 km. 10% of the roads are asphalt. 1500 km of the Magdelena River can be reached by transportation.

In the major cities, air transportation is established with the Airlines established in 1919. There are 69 airports in the country.