On April 21, 1500, Pedro Alveras Cabrol, a Portuguese sailor, made his way to South America with the assumption that I was going to India and declared the country to be held on behalf of the Portuguese king. In 1530, during an expedition led by Martin Alfonso de Sousa, he founded the city of Sao Vicente, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro and a year later the city of Santos. The city of Piratiningo was founded in 1532 in a high area near Sao Vicente. Brazil was a Spanish colony from 1580 to 1640 when the Portuguese dominated Spain. In 1640 the Portuguese recovered Brazil. The government moved from Salvador in 1763 to Rio de Janeiro. Because this place was more appropriate to be geographically and strategically central.
In 1698, plenty of gold was found in Sao Paulo. Later on, exploration trips to the inner parts of the Amazon basin were found as well as other mines. Although various feudal groups emerged in the region, there was no longer living and unity.
The system, which divided Brazil between Salvador Dali and Rio de Janeiro in 1572, continued until the 17th century. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Spaniards, the British, the French and the Germans were not able to succeed in capturing this region from time to time. After the Portuguese occupied by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, the king’s family and some of the state’s elders fled to Brazil and the following year established the government headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. In the meantime, the population of Brazil was 2,500,000, of which 400,000 were white 1.300,000 and 800,000 were indigenous. In 1538, black men were brought from Africa as slaves to be employed in large sugarcane farms and mines. When Napoleon was defeated by European states in 1819, the Portuguese king left his nephew Don Pedro and the Governor of Brazil and returned to Portugal.
In 1822, when the Portuguese parliament wanted to return to its first colony status, the Brazilians started the independence movements under the leadership of Don Pedro Jose Boni Facia deAndrada Silvan and declared their independence on September 7, 1822, and in 1824 they adopted a liberal constitution. After the irregular wars, the Portuguese had to accept the independence of Brazil. Brazil was ruled by the kingdom until 1889.
Brazil was the only country in Latin America that was ruled by the kingdom for the longest time. In 1831 Don Pedro and his son Don Pedro were forced to flee the throne. The foundations of modern Brazil were laid in the second Don Pedro. In 1888, 800,000 villagers were given freedom. In 1889, with a bloodless coup, the administration of the kingdom was destroyed and the republic was established. Brazil, which provided political unity in 1914, was recognized by the countries of the world. It is an unstable country and there are often constitutional changes and revolutions.
The distance between the point between the northernmost point of Brazil and the east and west is almost equal to each other (4225 km). In general, surface shapes are examined in two broad categories.
1. Wide plain plains of the Amazon River basin in the north, Parana and Paraguay river in the west.
2. The high plateaus of Brazil in the east and the Cuiana highlands in the north.
Two large river systems are boundless between two high mountainous regions. Although more than half of almost all of Brazil have places higher than 200 meters above sea level, the dominant part of the population is located in higher places. Almost 4% of the country is above 900 m above sea level. The highest mountain in Brazil is Pico da Bandeira and it is 2890 m.
Streams: The vast Amazon River is the largest and most water-bearing river in the world. It emerges from the east of the Andes in Peru and flows through the Brazilian plains. It is suitable for river transportation from the Atlantic Ocean to Peru. It forms various canals and islands where it is poured into the sea. The largest island is the island of Marajo, 26 km2. Important branches of the Amazon, Tocantins, Araguaia, Xingu and Topajostur. The other important river is the River Parana.
Lakes: There are two important lakes in Brazil. These are Lagoa dos patos and Lagoa.
Generally, Brazil’s climate is thought to be the same all around, but there are various climate differences in the country. The highest temperature seen in Brazil was recorded in the northeastern lowlands. The high amount of solar radiation absorbed here raises the temperature to 38 ° C. According to the results obtained in the Amazon Basin in the north, most of the year is moist and hot. The average annual rainfall is 2000 mm.
Northeast coasts have a tropical humid climate, and the rainy season (from May to October) that comes with the winters brings cold weather to the northern coasts. The inner parts of the damp regions in the northeast are desert. In the northeast of Brazil there are cactus and other plants in the constantly arid regions called Sertao. Summer is the rainy season except for the Amazon region. During the rest of the year the weather goes normally. Generally, the precipitation increases from the beach. However, the strong winds bringing damp rain, the inner parts are faced with mountain barriers. To the south of Sao Paulo, the Serra do Mar barrier in the Itapanhau region causes a rainfall of 4500 mm per year.
The most important factor controlling climate conditions is height. Because the average 300 m altitude drops to about 1.8 ° C. For this reason, the average annual temperature is 20 ° C in Belo Norizonte city, 850 m high, located at 20 ° south latitude. It is often snowing at 900 meters high plateaus in southern Brazil.
Vegetation and Animals
Plants are often closely linked to climate and soil conditions. Brazilian plants are examined in three groups.
Forests: Almost half of Brazil is covered with forests. Forests are grouped into four main groups: Selva, mata, araucaris, caatinya. Trees in the equatorial shallow rainforest in the Amazon Basin are called “selva”. It is the largest tropical rainforest forest in the world.
A very significant term among the terms of agriculture is the term “mata”, which shed half of the leaves of the tropical leaves of Eastern Brazil. These forests are a symbol of good land, humus and large farms in Brazil. These trees are cut and organic soils are obtained for agriculture.
The “araucaria” tree found in the forests in the southern high mountains of Brazil is widely used as construction timber in Brazil. It is used as a building material to shape concrete that is poured especially in rapidly developing cities. However, due to the fact that too many cuts are made, they are in danger of extinction. The planting forest called Caatinga is located in the northeastern part of the country. Here are locusts and desert plants.
Savanlar: In general, a large part of the central part of Brazil in terms of grassland. Brasilia, the new capital city of Brasilia, was established in this savanna region. The meadows in North America aren’t as much of a private land.
Grasslands: The main grasslands called Campos are located in the south of Brazil and some well-watered central plateaus. The Amazon region also has pasture lands.
In Brazil, animals differ widely in terms of animals, birds, and insects. Compared to Asia, Africa or even North America, there are no large mammals in Brazil. The forests in the north are rich in animals, in particular monkeys and birds. Some animals, such as fish, are used commercially. Insects are a serious threat to agriculture. More than 200 types of venomous snakes are available. However, snakes rarely appear in residential areas. Many wild animals have disappeared due to hunting.
Population and Social Life
Population: Brazil has great differences in terms of its social structure. The southern parts are more urbanized, more industrialized (including agriculture) and have political and social weight.
The northern and northeastern parts are rural, but rather aristocratic. For this reason, when historians talk about Brazil, they distinguish between the aristocratic class engaged in agriculture in the north and northeast and the industrialized democratic social class in the south.
The population growth in Brazil is very high. At the end of the twentieth century, it is estimated that it will be one of the most populous countries in the world: Brazilian population consists of four ethnic groups: Indigenous Indians, ColonistPorteans, African Negroes, and migrants from Europe and other countries since 1850. According to the census records, 62% of the population is whites, 11% are black people and 27% are brown leather.
However, hybrid populations are increasing due to marriages among different races. There has been a great deal of migration from outside to Brazil. Currently, 300,000 people in Brazil live in Portugal. Between 1875 and 1960, 5 million Europeans migrated to Brazil.
90% of the people belong to the Roman Catholic sect. Around 5% is Protestant. In Brazil, another religious group is Spiritualists. They have more than 2,000 meeting places. The father is the father in the family. However, this dominance has weakened recently. The official language is Portuguese.
Brazilians are poured into the streets during the summer and winter. They open their houses to shady places. Music and samba are popular games. Every kind of sport is done. He has a say in the world especially in football. He won the World Cup in 1958, 1962 and 1970.
Some of the population is located in the settlement centers of the coast. The most important ones are the former capital city of Sao Paulo. The newly established capital of Brasilia, Salvodor and Parto Alegre are other important cities.
Administration: Brazil is a federal republic consisting of 22 states. It is governed by the presidential system. The Parliament consists of the Senate and the National Assembly. Three senators from each state are elected for 8 years, and the deputies are elected for 4 years. The states also have a governor and independent judiciary elected by the people. Every Brazilian who is over 18 years old is required to vote. They cannot vote. Voting is not obligatory for those older than 67 years. Taxes are collected by the states.
Education: The proportion of illiterates is very high in some rural areas. It is low in Sao Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. 10% of state revenues are allocated for education in the constitution. Primary education is compulsory. There are three types of primary schools. The common one is the state primary school and it is governed by the state administrators. The second is municipal schools and the third is private primary schools. Primary school accepts students for 4 years and 7 or 8 years old. Secondary schools are similar to secondary schools in North America. The first university in Brazil was founded in 1920. However, there were notable developments in the 20th century and new universities were also established. Some universities are under the control of the church. The largest university is the University of Brazil, located in Rio de Janeiro.
Although the Brazilian economy showed a short pause after the Second World War, it showed a great improvement. However, inflation is among the most advanced countries in the world in terms of%, and reached thousands of figures. The currency was changed twice in 1967 and 1986.
Agriculture: Brazil is a country of agriculture in general, despite the development of its industry. Although more than half of the cultivated land is food products, it still imports some of the food need from outside.
Brazil is the world’s largest coffee producer and exporter. However, this coffee only meets the needs of countries in the Americas. Cotton production is also developed and constitutes the source of foreign exchange with coffee. Although it exports a small portion of sugarcane and cocoa, it uses a large portion of it for domestic consumption.
Precious timber trees, rice, green beans, cotton, coffee, sugarcane, cocoa and corn are the main products. In some parts of the country, a small amount of oranges, bananas, peanuts, tobacco, fiber and some vegetables are grown.
Brazil is one of the leading countries in the world for cattle breeding. Cattle are grown in the farm for abundant meat. In Brazil, agriculture is divided into two groups:
1. Agriculture in northern parts of Rio de Janeiro;
2. In the south of the country, it is mostly agriculture with modern tools.
Forestry and fishery: Araucaria trees in forests in Brazil are widely used in timber. Forests in the Amazon forests enter new production. Beeswax, shelled plants, gum tree, marketable forest products. However, none of these plants have entered the marketing environment yet. Forest products are also used in medicine. Ipeka syrup, cocaine, opium etc. This type of drugs is derived from forest products. Fishing is increasing day by day and contributes greatly to the economy of the country.
Industry: In recent years, exports of Brazilian manufactured industrial products have been more than agricultural products. In order to prevent electricity and energy deficit in the industry, it has established the world’s largest hydro power plant. This Itaipu Dam, which started in 1976, was completed in 1980 and produces more than 100 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity per year. In 1977, nuclear power plants started to operate with the Germans. Iron-steel, woven, paper, glass, wheel, plastic etc. factories are established and become self-sufficient. Annual steel production reached 20 million tons.
Mines: Brazil has rich mineral deposits. From the eighteenth century, rich gold and diamond mines were found. Brazil also has the world’s most abundant iron reserves. In the Amapo region abundant manganese is removed. Oil was found near Salvador. There are very few coal deposits in Brazil.