The Republic of Argentina (Spain. República Argentina) 34 Güney 36 ları ’South latitudes and 58’ 27 leri en It is a country located in the South American continent, among Western longitudes. Argentina’s total area of ??2, 766, 890 sq km – nearly 3.5 times larger than Turkey – (it’s 2, 736, 690 km²’s land, water km²’s 30,200), while the 2006 figures, the population of 39, 921, It is 833 people.

Argentina is a state stretching between the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean in the southern part of the South American continent; the length of the coastline is 4989 km. The land owned by Argentina is the second largest in the South America and the 8th in the world. It is located on the border of Chile (5,308 km), Bolivia (832 km), Paraguay (1,880 km), Brazil (1,261 km) and Uruguay (580 km).

The name of Argentina comes from the Latin word ’Argentum’ ‘(silver). The name of the country, which is what the Spanish colonists hope to find in these lands, can be clearly understood. Most of the inhabitants of the country are descendants of Spanish and Italian immigrants.


With an area of ??about 2.8 million square kilometers, Argentina narrows as it goes from north to south, reminiscent of a long triangle. The length of the largest land extending from north to south is 3.694 km and from west to east is approximately 1.423 km. The Atlantic Ocean extends along the east coast, Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast.

Argentina is divided into 23 provinces (provincias) and a federal region (distrito federal):

1 – Buenos Aires
2 – Buenos Aires (state)
3 – Catamarca
4 – Chaco
5 – Chubut
6 – Córdoba
7 – Corrientes
8 – Entre Ríos
9 – Formosa
10 – Jujuy
11 – La Pampa
12 – La Rioja
13 – Mendoza
14 – Misiones
15 – Neuquén
16 – Río Negro
17 – Salta
– San Juan
19 – San Luis
20 – Santa Cruz
21 – Santa Fe
22 – Santiago del Estero
23 – Tierra del Fuego and the South Atlantic Islands
24 – Tucúman

Federal District:
Buenos Aires

Surface Shapes

Patagonia, Argentina The main feature of the surface shapes of the eastern plains in the west creates a great contrast between the mountains.

In the West, the Andes rises with depressions, elevations, and volcanic eruptions. The ongoing earthquakes and volcanoes in the region prove that the territory is not yet occupied. The Andes in the north are more masculine. The high plateau extends between the 3500 – 4500 meters high, which is the continuation of the high plateaus of Bolivia. There are volcanoes with altitude exceeding 6000 meters. In the South, the mass is divided into closed basins and elevated blocks, and the climate becomes dry. This arid Catamarca la Rioja lies between the Mendoza foothills and the Santiago basin, in the form of a high mountain range (the highest point in Argentina with 6959 meters in Aconcagua). In 36 ° South latitude, the Andes are narrowed, descended and crushed by large transverse ruptures. The fourth glaciation was effective in this area and contributed to the formation of transverse valleys and lakes (Nahuel Huapí, etc.).

Sarmiento Park, Córdoba The plains and plateaus covering a large part of the country spread over the vastly lowered Brazilian saddle. The Brazilian shield creates very high masses only in the great mass of the Córdoba in front of the Andes, (a real wall covering the horizon from the West and a height of more than 2000 meters); in the south of the plain, it takes on much less high forms. It is astonishing that the topography of the region covering an area of ??one million square kilometers, extending from the Paraguayan border to the Colorado River, and that there are no regular river streams. Wind sediments at the end of the Third Time and at the beginning of the Fourth Time formed thick slime layers with salty and mostly crustal layers, but these layers were covered with loaves in the East and North during the near glacial periods, and sand in the west and in the central part. The surface forms are very diverse in detail and are dependent on climatic characteristics. In the tropical climate zone of Chaco, there is a deforested vegetation with palm trees. In the East and South, the Pampas region, which is located in the temperate climate latitudes, is covered with natural meadows. The meadows of various species, loose, deep and fertile black or brown lands give the Pampa a world-famous productivity. Paraná and Paraguay form a real river set in the east, which determines the boundary of the plain (the rivers used to have reached the plain from the ocean). In the east lies the hills of Entre Ríos, the flooded plains of Corrientes, and the basalt ridges of Misiones, forming a whole (a kind of Mesopotamia) between the River Paraná and the River Uruguay.


Aconcagua, Argentina There are many mountain ranges over 6,000 meters in the Andes. The highest peak of Argentina and the Americas (Aconcagua) and the two highest volcanoes in the world, Ojos del Salado (6.880 m) and Monte Pissis (6.795m) are located here. In the southern parts of the Andes, high mountains are less sparse, but they are covered with snow due to the cool and cold climate.

It is also possible to find elevations in Sierras Pampeanas. The Sierra de Famatina in the state of La Rioja is over 6,000 meters. However, the altitude of these mountain ranges decreases as they go east, and the heights of the mountains in Sierras de Córdoba are at most 2,800 meters.

In the northern part of the Mesetas Patagónicas (Patagonia Plains), the elevations in the southeast of Mendoza are about 4,700 meters, while these elevations are reduced as they go to the southeast. Mountains in other parts of Argentina rarely exceed 1,000 meters. Examples of these rare cases are the Sierras Australes Bonaerenses (Sierra de la Ventana and Sierra de Tandil) on the Atlantic coast and in the mountainous region of Misiones.

Rivers and Lakes

The source of the rivers in Argentina is largely Río de la Plata. The rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are spread over an area of ??5,200,000 km² and almost a third of this area is located within the borders of Argentina, while the rest is located in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The two major rivers pouring into Río de la Plata are the Paraná River and the River Uruguay. In the north, the Iguazú and Iguazú National Park, one of the largest waterfalls in the world, are located on the Brazilian border. The Iguazú River and its waterfalls are three times larger than the Niagara Falls.

Iguazú Falls, the second largest river in the north of Patagonia, is Colorado. Its most important branch, the Río Salado del Oeste, waters a large part of Western Argentina, but it is a dry, swampy river that has become an arid climate.

There are two large lakes in Argentina. The first and the big one is the region where the fresh water lakes start from the foothills of the Southern Andes and follow each other from the Neuquén to the Fire Lands (Tierra del Fuego). The second is the low and generally salty lakes in the western part of Pampa and south of Chaco.

Laguna Mar Chiquita (5770 km²) and the Los Glaciares National Park in Córdoba, and Lago Argentino (1415 km²) and Lago Viedma (1088 km²), which are accepted by NATO as a world heritage, are among the important lakes. The famous Perito Moreno Glacier is also located in this park.


La Isla de los Lobos (Seal Island) Argentina has a very long coastline, but it has a very small number of islands. Its largest island is the Tierra del Fuego (47,000 km²), which belongs to the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago. It shared the island with Argentina (21,571 km²) and Chile (25,571 km²). In addition, there are Falkland Islands (Las Islas Malvinas / Falkland Islands), which are claimed by Argentina, but are governed by the United Kingdom. After the invasion of the island in April 1982 in Argentina, the Falkland War, which lasted until June 14, 1982, began and this war ended with the defeat of Argentina. The largest island in the Falkland Archipelago is Soledad (East Falkland) -6683 km²- and Gran Malvina (West Falkland) – 5278 km². South Georgia and the South Sissy Islands have the same status.

Other important islands are the islands located in the area between Bahía Blanca and Bahía Anegada Bay in the south of Buenos Aires Province. The islands are flat and are completely empty, except for Jabalí Island, where the San Blas spa is located. The biggest island is Trinidad Island with an area of ??207 km². There are also a few small islands on the coast of Patagonia.

Climate and Vegetation

The southern tip of the country on the ocean front is humid and temperatures are never high. The climate is warm, rainy and tea is grown here in the state of Misiones, at a temperature of 9.2 ° C in the Ushuaia, at a north end of 3700 km, in the province of Misiones. In all the regions of the country, while the temperatures from North to South are decreasing, the main feature of the climate is that it is dry. It extends across Argentina from a wide arid zone from the Northwest to the Southwest. This) arid diagonal görül begins in high plateaus and basins in the Andes, and runs on mountain foothills (193 mm rainfall per year in Mendoza) and ends on the Patagonia coast (rainfall below 200 mm). The climate in Pampa changes gradually from the Atlantic coast towards the interior. The rainy (1200 mm) and generally soft climate near the Río de la Plata is terrestrial and arid in the interior. Rainfall is intensified during the summer and the moisture they bring undergoes a great evaporation. The 600 mm stock curve draws a wide arc from Bahía Blanca to Córdoba. Thus, from the ’rainy” Pampa to the “dry” Pampa.

Pucará de Tilcara, Due to these conditions described, there is little forest in Argentina. A large part of the country is covered with meadows and thorny bushes. The western half of the country, located in the North of Patagonia, is covered with a sparse plant assemblage consisting of trees and small trees with few spines and few leaves. A small amount of shrubs and some wheat grains were clustered between the rocks of Patagonia. An endless meadow of high natural grass and a bad pasture, the Pampa has been replaced by the introduction of new herbs from Europe and the spreading of clover and clover. The tree is planted, but real forests are located in the southern Andes lakes in the administrative region (Arokarya Forests) and around the Strait of Magellan (beech forests). The large tropical forest in the north is located in Argentina in two places: on the eastern slopes of the Misiones and on the eastern slopes of the Tucumán Andes, there is a forest (Quebrachos), which is dominated by hardwood-rich species.

Population and Economy

The settlement of people to Argentina took place by descending from the Spanish highlands to the northwest and from the mining areas to the Andes. This was the first Argentine, an extension of the mining areas in question, providing grain, sheep and load animals (especially mule). The Atlantic Ocean front was uninterested for a long time. Therefore, the agricultural and shepherd economy of the Andes in the northwest is XVIII. century, and the cities established by the Spanish (colonial-era-dependent and vibrant Argentina [[Buenos Aires]] port and Pampa] still densely populated by migrations to the right), the day until the foundation of the hybrid Argentina It was created. XIII. In the second half of the 16th century, when the city of Buenos Aires was established by the King Naipate (its capital was Buenos Aires) and opened to Atlantic Ocean trade before independence, the weight of Argentina began to Aires slide ine from the Andes to the Plata halic, and the exact turning XIX. the last quarter of the century. The main role in this development was the fact that the cattle, who were allowed to wander in Pampa during the conquest of the Spaniards, started to grow with commercial understanding. XIII to Europe: leather in the XIX century, XIX. While dried meat was sold in the first half of the century, these products were replaced by sheep wool. After this date, the owners of the meadows in Pampa became the main economic and political power closely related to the foreign bourgeoisie in Buenos Aires, and over time in the whole of Argentina. The European city markets, capitals, techniques and even people were allowed to settle in the territory of the country between 1800 and 1900 and then to equip and complete all of these lands. Until 1929 the Great Economic Depression, the country experienced a great period of prosperity, based on the evaluation of agricultural products for export (Great Britain). Very large farms (y lar iler iler estancia ek, ayır) were made in Pampa, and the landowners added wheat, linen and corn to the ramers they placed in these farms, then separated large areas of clover for the cattle. Large farms began to meet the requirements of frozen meat of British butchers. In the Rosario Santa Fe Pampa area near Paraná and in many parts of the arid Pampas, large landowners divide their land into parcels and rented or shared land to farmers from Italy or even from Eastern Europe. This type of crops cultivated in 1930 turned Argentina into a country selling mainly wheat, corn and oil in international trade. The country’s marginal areas were opened to operation, focusing on agriculture for domestic consumption (except for Patagonia, where sheep-wool was sold abroad – left to large-scale companies). When the Great Economic Depression erupted, Argentina, where 7 million migrants (half of them Italian, one-third Spanish) came, became a biri new lak country where white people lived. The country’s products were Ülke flowing ’into the ports of Bahía Blanca, especially in the port of Buenos Aires, down the coast of Paraná, through its frequent rail network in the Pampas and their arms to the edge. Since the population could not find land in the rural areas owned by a small number of large landowners, the population flocked to flock cities. The economic crisis increased this development in urbanization; Buenos Aires, where the migration from the village to the city has reached extraordinary dimensions, has become one of the biggest mainland in the world. The state supported the development of industry. After 1947, during the period of Peron’s presidency, the state undertook public services and major equipment work, and supported the cooperation between the national private sector based on a corporation trade union movement and the ini heavy industry m that was under the control of the military. Due to the absence of foreign markets, Pampa agriculture paused until the end of the Second World War; but in the same period, the European hunger and meat were deprived of hunger as a result of the continuation of the policy of systematically transferring to the non-agricultural sectors. In spite of the development of new products for the domestic market (milk, oil extracted plants), the migration from the village to the city reached to giant dimensions. At the end of the 1950s, this large agricultural country was completely excluded from the world market as a result of the extraordinary developments in the Anglo-Saxon type of agriculture of new countries. Common equipment from the turn of the century was obsolete, especially in terms of rail and maritime transport. However, while several light industries were developing, several important new branches, such as the oil and steel industry, were established. Argentina has become an urbanized country, even a bomb city-country Arjantin, while its vast territory is an empty country.