America

The United States is a federal state consisting of 50 states on the North American continent. The US homeland neighbors are Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The official establishment date is July 4, 1776.

United States of America; east of the Atlantic from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean is up to 4,500 km wide.

The United States, including Alaska and Hawaii, has a surface area of ??more than 9 million square kilometers. Alaska is northwest of Canada. Hawaii is located in the Pacific Ocean, 3,000 kilometers from the United States on the continent. Alaska is the largest in the 50 states. Located on the south side of the country is Texas second.

Climate

There are many different climates in the United States. Since the mountain ranges on the east and west coasts prevent the oceans from influencing the climate of the interior, the continental climate prevails in all over the country except those coastlines.

Since the middle parts are very high, there is not much temperature difference between the seasons. The Appalachian Mountains do not constitute an important obstacle. Although the central regions have low pressure in the summer season, the humid weather from the ocean is not obstructed by the Appalachians. On the western side, rainfall is less.

The southern part of the strip, which is coastal to the Atlantic Ocean, is relatively rainy and temperate, although the north is cooler and winters are very severe.

The tropical climate is dominated by the southern part of Mexico, which is open and flat. Here, summers are warm and winters are mild. There is plenty of rainfall in all seasons. Although the Alaska coastline has a climate affected by the sea, there are very severe temperatures in the interior.

Political Structure

Form of government: The United States is a federal association of 50 states. The center of the national government is the District of Colombia. The Constitution determines the outlines of the national government. Indicates its activities with the powers. Each state that has its own constitution and powers is responsible for other affairs. Each state; In terms of management, the city is divided into towns, towns and villages. Each state has its own elected governments.

Government: In the United States, the government is the people’s government; established by the people. Members of Congress, president, state officials, towns and cities are elected by the people. Judges are also directly elected by the public or appointed by the elected authorities. Public officials may be dismissed if they do not perform their duties well or violate the law severely.

The Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms of persons. These rights and freedoms are stated in the first ten amendments to the constitution which were added to the constitution in 1791 and called the Human Rights Declaration.

The Constitution has divided the powers of the government into three: the legislature, which includes both sides of the congress, the executive, the Senate and the House of Representatives, and the judiciary, particularly the high court. The Constitution restricts the competence of each and prevents one to have more than one power.

In state governments, the system is almost identical to the federal government system.

In every state there is a governor at the head of the executive force. State governments look at jobs such as protection of order, education of children and young people, road construction. The federal government deals with issues of national and international concern and more than one state. Laws affecting the daily life of citizens are implemented by the police in cities and towns. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, known as the FBI; the criminals who cross the state borders investigate and follow those who violate federal law.

Federal Government: The President of the United States is elected for a four-year term by a general election. The selected President may be selected at the end of the term. The President is born in America and must have at least thirty-five years of age. It costs $ 200,000 a year, plus an additional $ 50,000 for costs; but they pay income tax on their sum. It also takes $ 100,000 for travel and non-taxable as guest hospitality.

If the President vetoes or refuses to sign a bill approved by Congress; A decision taken by two-thirds of the convention with two-thirds of the vote overrides this veto and the bill becomes law. President; appoints federal judges, ambassadors, hundreds of government officials. In the event of death, resignation or permanent injury of the President, the vice-chairman shall hold the position until the election.
A President who has not completed his term of office under the auspices of the United States Constitution may only be dismissed on the basis of sufficient evidence and with a two-thirds majority of the members in the House of Representatives, on the basis of sufficient evidence. To date, only one American President has been charged with abuse of office. He was acquitted in 1868 and was acquitted. In 1974, however, the election campaign was attended by a large number of high-ranking officials, including President Richard Nixon. In this incident, called Watergate, Nixon resigned before going to court and was replaced by Gerard Ford.

Congress, which is the legislative branch; It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senators are elected for 6 years and the members of the House of Representatives are elected for two years. Senators and Representatives can be re-elected as long as they want to be a candidate.

Fifty states send two senators to Congress. One-third of the Senate is elected every two years. The candidate must be thirty years of age to become a senator and must have been an American citizen at least nine years before his election.

The House of Representatives has 435 members. Each state has a certain number of members according to its population. The states are divided into equally populated electoral districts, and voters of each region elect a delegate to Congress. A member must be at least twenty-five years old and at least seven years old.

A bill must be approved by both the Senate and the House of Representatives in order to become a law.

Foreign policy: Since the establishment of the country, he has been the main speaker in the management of foreign policy. However, their powers are not unlimited. The commitments it has made must be confirmed by the Congress.

The United States has also participated in regional defense groups such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization of the United States of America (OAS) and other organizations supporting peace and development.

Population and Ethnicity

The population of the United States consists of many different elements. According to the 2006 census, there are 32 groups with a population of 1 million or more. The majority (81%) of the population is white and of European origin. This is followed by Latin American descent with 13%. 13% of the population is black. Most of these come from people who were forcibly brought to Africa in the time of the colonies, but most of them have migrated from Africa and the Caribbean in recent years. 4% of the population is of Asian origin and 1% of them is Native American.

US-led territories:

Puerto Rico, an island of 9000 square kilometers in the Caribbean Sea, is connected to the United States. The population of the United States is 3.410.000. They choose their governors and legislative councils themselves.

The Virgin Islands in the sea of ??Karaipler were purchased in 1917 from Denmark. One hundred thousand inhabitants of the island are citizens of the United States of America and they choose the senate, the governors and the only legislative body. There are fifty small islands in the Virgin Islands that hold 346 square kilometers.

Panama; The Panama Canal District, which is an eight-kilometer-long landmark on both sides of the canal, was under American control from 1904 to 1978, according to treaties between the two countries. In 1978, the leaders of the two countries signed a new treaty, which gave 65% of the region the control of Panama in December 31, 1989 and the rest in 2000.

The United States’ responsibility for the defense and operation of the channel was transferred to Panama in history.

American schools in Turkey

Private American Robert College, Istanbul
Private Izmir American High School, Izmir
Private Tarsus American High School, Mersin
Uskudar American High School, Istanbul

Turkey and the United States, although touted as allies in the military field for decades because of NATO, Turkey has remained in effect in many areas of the United States. In addition, the two countries signed several bilateral agreements.

United States, has supported Turkey’s EU process and the vulnerability has been found in print in the EU. However, relations have received major injuries due to the United States’ Kurdish policy, allegedly secretly supporting the PKK, and finally invading Iraq.